Adam A. Farah Leila M. Mokhtar Amar S. Abdallah,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /13642
The goal of this study is to convert waste cooking oil into biodiesel using an alkali catalyzed transesterification chemically biodiesel is monoalkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable feed stock like vegetable oils and animal fats. It is produced by transesterification in which, oil or fat is reacted with a monohydric alcohol in presence of a catalyst to give the corresponding monoalkyl esters. The titration, distillation, colorimetric and XRDF techniques was used for analysis the oil. The waste cooking oil parameters: Acid Value (2.46%), Free Fatty Acid (0.66%), Moisture Content (0.9231%), Density 455.7 (kg/m3), Viscosity (19.64 mm2/s), Peroxide Index (202.83 O2/kg), Saponification Value (8.45 mg/g), Unsponifiable material (0.98%) and Impurities (1.23%). Biodiesel properties such as: Flash Point 63 , Density 883.8 Kg/m3, API Gravity 28.48, Kinamatic Viscosity 4.65 mm2/s, Distillation at 90% at 334 , Color 2.50, Cetane Index 47.00 Sulfur Content 0.0224%, Heat of Combustion 45.10 MJ/Kg Water Content 0.00%, Cloud Point 1.00 These results was conformed with the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). It was concluded that waste cooking oil is one of the option for biodiesel production at a large scale depending on its mass cultivation. More search for alternative feed-stocks needs to be continued.
Rishabh Chitranshi and Naveen Kumar Arora ,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /12835
Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oilseed crop in India. It has a good contribution to Indian economy. Oil seeds are highly susceptible for fungal infections under storage condition as they have ample amount of nutrients in them. Different fungal species of Aspergillus were dominant in coursing infections in groundnut. Aspergillus species cause various deteriorative alterations by physical and chemical means in groundnut seeds. Storage fungi cause chronic infection in seeds due to favorable environmental conditions such as moisture, relative humidity and temperature. In current study, fungal pathogens were isolated from Groundnut seeds. Groundnut seeds were singled out from warehouse located in Farrukhabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Two dominant fungal pathogens RF-02 and RF-07 which cause major destruction in storage groundnut seeds were selected for further analysis at genus and species level by using 18S rRNA sequencing technique. Fungal strains dominantly covered up about 90 percent of groundnut seeds. After 18s rRNA, sequencing RF-02 and RF-07 strains were identified as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. These identified sequences were submitted in NCBI and got the accession numbers KY933394 and KY357318 respectively
Jaswant S. Rathore and Chandra Shekhar Jeengar,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /12327
Major and trace elements have been of prime importance in different species of plants. Their role and functions have been well established in many cases but newer aspects are continuously being discovered. We have made an attempt to analyses the significant elements in plants leaves as freely mobile and in bound form. Leaf being highly functional part, gives indication about the overall morphology of the plants. Water soluble extract and the insoluble part was analyzed for Major elements Na, K, Ca, Mg and trace elements Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, Co, Ni by MPAES instrument of Agilent co. USA. Distribution of each element indicates its role in the overall development of plant. Conclusions have been drawn by correlation study of different elements. The critical elements in the three species have been identified in the category of arid plants.
Dr. Suresh kumar Halnor,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /11822
Low cost adsorbent used was Hydrochloric acid treated Syzygium Cumini Leaf Powder (SCLP).This was used to remove chromium ions from aq. solution. pH, initial conc.of adsorbate and adsorbent dose parameters were studied and adsorption study was carried out.
Prof. Sangita Sanjay Makone, Navashaba Tazin, Dr. Sandeep Nivruttirao Niwadange, DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /10917.
We have developed a one pot facile route for the synthesis of fused 3,4-dihydropyrimidine- 2(1H)-thiones by three component condensation of aldehydes, ethyl acetoacetate and thiourea is described using ionic liquid 1-butyl, 3-methyl imidazolium perchlorate ([bmim] ClO4) under reflux conditions.