One of the most attractive concepts in chemistry for sustainability is Green Chemistry, which is the utilization of a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture, and applications of chemical products. One of the key areas of Green Chemistry is the elimination of solvents in chemical processes or the replacement of hazardous solvents with environmentally benign solvents. Microwave heating has attracted the attention of investigators in that it makes it possible to shorten the length of reactions significantly, to increase their selectivity, and to increase the product yields, which is particularly important in the case of high‐temperature processes that take a long time. Reactions in microwave ovens are currently in use for the synthesis of medicinally important compounds. Within the framework of ‘Green Chemistry’ we have now developed an environmentally benign and novel approach for the synthesis of (E)‐4‐(substituted benzylidene)‐2‐phenyl‐1‐(5‐phenylthiazol‐2‐yl)‐1H‐imidazol‐5(4H)‐one.These compounds have prepared by the reaction of 5‐(pyridin‐4‐yl)‐1,3,4‐thiadiazol‐2‐amine with various (Z)‐ 4‐(substituted benzylidene)‐2‐phenyloxazol‐5(4H)‐one by using modified domestic microwave oven. The structure of these compounds was assigned on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR spectral data. The compounds showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus , C. albicans and A. niger using cup plate and agar well diffusion technique.
A cyclopeptide alkaloid nummularine‐M and one flavonoid – Kaempferol‐7‐methyl ether has been isolated from the root bark of Zizyphus joazeiro and their structures were established by spectral evidences. This is the first report of these compounds in Z. joazeiro.
The analysis of macro and micro‐nutrients present in the barley grain shows the presence of the high concentration of Zinc (Zn) and Boron (B) (261.646 ppm and 60.103 ppm respectively) with respect to analyzed soil collected separately from Rajasthan and Haryana province, whereas concentration of Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg) are lesser (624.139 ppm and 1141.421 ppm, respectively) with respect to soil (2267.00 ppm and 4383.00 ppm respectively).These results were analyzed at Arbro Pharmaceuticals Limited; Delhi using inductively coupled plasma mass‐spectrometer (ICP‐MS) and Atomic absorption spectrometer‐hydride generation (AAS‐HG) by Fare lab, Gurgaon, Haryana, India. The results may be useful in the food nutritional chemistry for animal feed, human consumption and for Agro industry.
Abundance and biomass of earthworms represent the biological activity and quality of soils. Investigation on the earthworms' population and its relationship with vegetation and soil is a necessity to determine the ecological potential of forest types. Acer insign, Quercus castaneifolia, Pinus brutia, Carpinus betulus ‐ Zelkova carpinifolia with Quercus castaneifolia were dominated forest types in Darabkola forest (North of Iran) and were selected for this research. Four soil profiles (50×50cm) in each type to study of physical and chemical soil properties were selected. Soil samples taken from 0‐10, 10‐20, 20‐30, and 30‐40cm depths. Earthworms were collected from whole depths by hand sorting method, then oven – dried at 60°C and weighed. Some of soil properties were measured and analyzed to find relation and distribution of earthworms. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to analyze data. Results of this study indicated that correlation between the abundance and biomass of earthworms with saturation moisture, soil texture (sand, silt and clay), exchangeable solution K‐, exchangeable K‐, Mg‐, extractable phosphorous, organic carbon, total nitrogen, and ratio of carbon to nitrogen, biomass of earthworms with exchangeable solution Mg‐, and abundance of earthworms with theirs biomass were significant at 95% and 99% probably levels. Correlation between the abundance and biomass of earthworms with the other investigated soil properties was no significant.
Priya Gothwal, Gunwanti Malhotra and Y.K. Srivastava
Some new3‐[4’‐(4”‐nitrophenoxy)‐phenyl]‐5‐(substituted aryl)‐2‐pyrazoline‐1‐thiocarboamides have been synthesized employing microwave heating technique and evaluated for their antimicrobial activities. Substituted acetophenones were reacted with appropriately substituted benzaldehydes in presence of base to furnish substituted 4’‐(4”‐nitrophenoxy) chalcones (1a‐f). These chalcones on further treatment with thiosemicarbazide in presence of potassium carbonate under microwave irradiation yielded the title compounds (2a‐f). The structure of the newly synthesized compounds (2a‐f) has been confirmed by suitable analytlcal and spectral analysis (IR, 1H‐NMR and MASS). All the compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities in vitro.
Water pollution due to release of industrial wastewater has already become a serious problem in almost every industry using dyes to color their products. Normally wastewater is treated in plants to remove undesirable components which include both organic and inorganic matters and soluble and insoluble materials. Experimental investigations have been made for color removal of textile waste water containing dyes using waste material from sugar cane industry. Adsorption of a basic dye, Methylene Blue (MB), from aqueous solution onto baggase (waste material from sugar cane) has been investigated. The parameters of the experiments include initial concentration of dye, adsorbent amount temperature and adsorption time.
Green chemistry is a pro-active approach to pollution prevention. It targets pollution atthe design stage, before it even begins. To develop products and materials in a manner that does not use hazardous substances,then much waste, hazards and cost can be avoided. Green Chemistry is designing chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and the generation of hazardous substances.
Disease burden, in relation to environmental risk factors is generally determined by establishing the exposure of the population (on a regional basis) to the chosen risk factor and combining these data with exposure–response relationships for the selected health outcomes, to estimate the number of people affected with each outcome. This may then be converted into disability‐adjusted life years, accounting for the severity and duration of each health outcome. In relation to various risk factors such as malnutrition; the disability or the diseased state may be attributed to exposure to poor quality water, sanitation and hygiene or air pollution. Nitrate is a naturally occurring ion, which makes up part of the nitrogen cycle. The nitrate ion (NO3−) is the stable form of combined nitrogen for oxygenated systems. Nitrate has been concerned in a diseased state known as “Methemoglobinemia” and also a number of currently inconclusive health outcomes. Although it is chemically unreactive, it can be reduced to the reactive nitrite ion with the help of microbes present in the body; in contrast to nitrite that comes mainly from vegetables—celery, beets, spinach, lettuce and other leafy types; nitrate in the diet comes mainly from cured meats such as bacon, sausage and luncheon meats. Nitrates once absorbed in the bloodstream, circulate to the salivary glands where bacteria convert them to nitrite,which is then swallowed in our saliva and thus nitrites enters the blood circulation. While investigating the drinking‐water nitrate concentration and its relation with methemoglobinemia; the exposure assessment should be based up on the levels of nitrate in drinking water greater than the WHO guideline value of 45 mg/L. The consumption of drinking water, high in nitrates causes methemoglobinemia in infants, it appears now that nitrate may be one of the number of co‐factors that play a complex role in causing various diseases.
Ageing (British English) or aging (American English) is the accumulation of changes in a person over time.Ageing in humans refers to a multidimensional process of physical, psychological, and social change .Antiageing is the term used to slower down the process of ageing in the cells of the body. This concept is described under a separate section in Ayurved known as Rasayana Chikitsa.Various procedures and herbs having antiageing properties are described. Also separate groups of herbs having ant ageing properties are described under the section of Vayahsthapana gana, Jeevaniya gana etc. Drugs like Ashwagandha, Tulsi, Haridra,Guduchi, Amalaki etc have been proven for their ant ageing effect by various researches.
Vimal R. Joshi, Charmi S.Mehta, B.J Pattagiri and P.K Prajapati
The plant Tulsi is described vividly in Ayurved.Two types of Tulsi are described and their different Pharmacological actions and therapeutic uses are also described in detail. Pharmacognostic study of a plant not only helps to identify the plant among different species but also helps to differentiate the different types of the same plant. In the present study, review of the plant Tulsi was done from Ayurvedic texts and macroscopic and microscopic sections were taken to identify the species.