Psidium guajava commonly called as guava belongs to family Myrtaceae. The leaf & the bark have lot of medicinal properties. Guava leaves especially have been a subject for diverse research in terms of pharmacological properties & its history in folk medicine. The leaves have been used in folk medicine as remedy for diarrhea & also for its antimicrobial properties. In the present study a comparative analysis of aqueous & methanolic extracts was done for both young & mature leaves. Phytochemical screening was carried out by standard biochemical tests, and to evaluate the possibility of novel pharmaceuticals having antimicrobial potential. The study revealed the presence of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, anthocyanins, carotenoids, essential oils, fatty acids, lectins, phenols, saponins, tannins etc. The microbial assay was done by agar cup method & MIC against the following microorganism- Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis.
The study aims to make sauce using aloe vera. The ingredients like, aloe vera juice (800-1200ml), sugar (900-1100g), salt (15-35g) and chilli powder (40-60g) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The design contains a total of 31 experimental runs involving replications of the central points in a randomized factorial design and organized. Data obtained from RSM on aloevera sauce production were subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and were analyzed using a second order polynomial equation. Sensory analysis for color, taste and aroma in the aloe vera sauce were performed. The optimum ingredient compositions for the best sensory score of the three outputs were: aloevera juice – 990 ml, sugar – 1015 g, salt - 25.3 g, and chilli powder- 47.7 g. Sauce produced under the optimum conditions was subjected to evaluation of sensory values and the results were compared with the RSM predictions.
Anjali Rajbhoj, Nanda Korde, Suresh Gaikwad and Jayprakash Dargad
1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)propane-1,3-dione 4LB and its transition metal complexes Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II)and Cr(III) have been synthesized by ultrasound irradiation method. The 1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)propane-1,3-dione is offered by employing Baker-Venkatraman rearrangement on 2-acetylphenyl,4-ethoxy benzoate 3E. The synthesized compounds were confirmed by the spectroscopic analysis such as IR, 1H-NMR,13C-NMR, Mass, Elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility and evaluated for antibacterial screening against different pathogens such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus(gram -ve) and E. Coli(gram +ve) and antifungal activity against fungi, A.neiger and F. Oxysporum. Utilization of ultrasound irradiation, simple reaction conditions, isolation and purification makes this manipulation very interesting from an economic and environmental perspective.
Environment is the sum of all social economical, biological, physical or chemical factors which constitute the surrounding of man, who is both creator and molder of his environment. Environmental pollution is a serious problem of the environment in which human activities have played a prominent role. At present the situation is so alarming that the man made environment causing a major threat to the survival of man as well as of the other organisms. Noise pollution is the result of industrialized urban life and congestion. Our Festivals are the main source of noise pollution. In Amravati city, the noise level recorded during the Ganesh Utasav, Navratra and Diwali. The recorded all the values are higher in times. The impacts of noise pollution are also severe. The control measures are necessary to control the noise pollution. The project is for Environmental awareness in people.
Sludge according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defined sludge as the semi – liquid residue or slurry remaining from treatment of industrial water and wastewater. Composite sampling was done in the collection of sludge from a Brewery. Locally sourced natural coagulant of plant origin, jatropha gossypifolia system latex was also collected. The stem latex is commonly used by people in this part of the country to stop bleeding from minor cuts, injuries and bruises. The collected sludge sample was characterized physicochemical according to standard procedures and was found to have high pollution potentials on the basis of some parameters determined, amongst which COD, Turbidity and BOD are. The values were found to be 1034.00NTU, 640.00mg/l and 2072.19mg/l for Turbidity, BOD and COD respectively. The Total Solids (TS) and Suspended Solids (SS) were 307.50mg/l and 2067.50mg/l respectively Optimum dosage of the coagulant was determined for the jatropha gossypifolia stem latex and was 1.00 ml at pH of 6.7. On the basis of this, the sludge was treated and the treated sludge sample, characterized. Triplicate determinations were done in each case and the mean values and standard deviations obtained from statistical evaluation using the Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests. From the results obtained, there were significant reductions (p0.05) in pollution in measured parameters indicated by the values of the parameters determined, thus, an improvement on the quality of the sludge samples with 78.28%, 78.91% and 88.25% reduction in the COD, BOD and Turbidity in the treated sludge sample. The total and suspended solids increased by 22.24% and 14.47% respectively. The jatropha gossypifolia stem latex wasalso effective at low levels, its effectiveness is less pH dependent and does not pose problems in terms of residual metal contamination and are generally more biodegradable, therefore more environmental friendly. It is readily available, cheap and easy to handle. The use of the coagulant for the treatment of sludge can be sorecommended.
Existing municipal solid waste management by Amravati Municipal Corporation was studied extensively in respect of collection, transportation, and disposal methods. Solid wastes from seven locations of the study area were analyzed for physical, chemical and other parameters. Optimization studies of transfer and transportation of solid waste also studied so as to arrive at appropriate routes and haul costs to the existing methodologies.
Two simple, sensitive, rapid and selective spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of Iron (II) and Iron (III) by using newly synthesized reagent 4-Hydroxy 3, 5-dimethoxy benzaldehyde-4- hydroxybenzoylhydrazone (HDMBHBH) in presence of acidic surfactant C-TAB (5%) (micellarmedium). Iron (II) and Iron (III) forms light yellow coluored water-soluble complex with HDMBHBH at pH 4.0 and 5.0 (Phosphate buffer) and the complexes shows the maximum absorbance at lmax 400 and 380 nm for Iron (II) and Iron (III) respectively. At these wavelengths (lmax), the complex shows maximum absorbance while the reagent blanks shows negligible absorbance. Beer's law was obeyed in the range 0.139-1.396, 0.279-2.79μg ml-1 and the optimum cconcentration range from ringbom plot was 0.279-1.256, 0.244-3.04 mg/ml for Fe (II) and Fe (III) respectively. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity for the coloured solution were found to be 3.09x104 L mol-1cm-1 and 0.0018-μg.cm-2 for Fe (II) and 1.71x104 L mol-1 cm-1 and 0.0032 -μg.cm-2 for Fe (III) respectively. The interference effects of various diverse ions have been studied. Iron (II) and Iron (III) forms 1:1 complex with HDMBHBH stoichiometry with stability constant 3.49x106 for Iron (II) and 3.5x105 for Iron (III). The standard deviation in the determination of 0.558-μg ml-1 of Iron (II) was found to be 0.0016 for Iron (II) and 0.279 μg ml-1 of Iron (III) for was 0.0015 respectively. First and second order derivative spectrophotometric methods was developed at lmax 420, 440 nm for Iron (II) and at 440, 460 nm for Iron (III) which is more sensitive than the zero order method. The developed method has been employed for the determination of Iron (II) and Iron (III) in synthetic alloy samples. The results are in good agreement with the certified values.
Present paper investigates the synthesis and antifungal activity of some chalcone derivatives synthesized by equimolar reactions between substituted aldehydes and substituted acetophenones in basic medium using conventional and microwave assisted technique. These compounds were characterized by FTIR, 1HNMR and Mass spectra. These synthesized compounds have been screened for their antifungal (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans) activity in different concentrations using the paper disc method. All compounds were found to possess better inhibiting growth against all fungus compared with Ketoconazole.
The oral cavity consists of a large number of bacteria which accumulates on oral surface to cause various oral diseases such as dental caries, plaque etc. A herbal toothpowder consisting of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark, Thea sinensis leaves, Moringa oleifera root, Glycyrhhiza glabra roots and rhizome, Terminalia chebula fruit and clove oil was prepared and evaluated for its effect on microbial flora of oral cavity. The selected medicinal plants have the secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, alkaloids etc. which inhibit the oral microbial growth. The formulation was evaluated on 60 volunteers for 7 days. Their base line Plaque Index and bacterial count was recorded on the first day. After 7 days, Plaque index and bacterial count was again recorded. Thetoothpowder formulation was also compared with various marketed toothpaste brands. It was found that the toothpowder was as effective as Colgate and Pepsodent which are marketed fluoridated toothpaste as all showed around 47 % reduction in oral salivary microbial count. This may be due to the synergistic effect of the ingredients when formulated into a toothpowder. Therefore, the herbal toothpowder is effective as well comparable to the other synthetic toothpastesavailable in the market.
Shrikant S. Patil, Deepak. M. Nagrik, Rameshwar S. Dhamak, Damodhar M.Ambhore and Janakiram B.Devhad
Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) are emerged as one of the most useful synthesis route in organic synthesis due to their wide application range in pharmaceutical chemistry. A variety of β- acetamido ketoesters were readily prepared in good to excellent yield via four component reaction of aromatic aldehydes, enolizable ketones and acetonitrile in presence of stoichiometric amount of acetyl chloride. Here water, methanol, ethanol, perchloroethylene, xylene, and 1, 1, 1 trichloroethane were used as green solvent. The said procedure shows good toexcellent results towards the yield of products. This protocol established the milestone in green chemistry as per as simple work up, mild reaction conditions and appreciable yield is concern.
One hundred twenty non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects were selected from Punjab Agricultural University and Civil Hospital of Ludhiana. The selected subjects were divided into four groups viz. group I, II, III and IV having thirty subjects each. The subjects of group I was not given any treatment. The subjects of group II, III and IV were supplemented with 2 gm of bael (Aegle marmelos L.) leaf, pulp and seed powder respectively for a period of three month and supplementation was continued along with nutrition counseling for the next three months. The nutrition education was given for three months after fifteen days interval to the subjects of group II, III and IV through individual and group contact and gain in nutrition knowledge was assessed after the study. General information, diabetic information and dietary pattern of the subjects were recorded.The blood glucose and lipid profile were analyzed. It was found that there was significant reduction (P≤0.01) in fasting blood glucose level by 16.1, 10.8 and 11.4% and post prandial blood glucose level 11.5, 27.3 and 13.0% in the subjects of group II, III and IV respectively after the study and a non-significant reduction (P≤0.01) was seen in the subjects of group I. It was observed that significant reduction (P≤0.01) in total cholesterol 7.8, 9.3 and 5.0%, triglycerides 10.9, 8.5 and 6.6%, LDL-C 14.4, 17.0 and 8.0%, VLDL-C 11.0, 8.6 and 6.7% and an increase in HDL-C 17.0, 19.4 and 4.8% in the subjects of group II, III and IV respectively. The ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C reduced from 5.3 to 4.2, 5.8 to 4.4 and 5.5 to 4.9 mg/dl and LDL-C to HDL-C were reduced from 3.6 to 2.7, 3.8 to 2.9 and 3.6 to 3.1 mg/dl in the subjects of group II, III and IV respectively after the study. There were also a significant decrease (P≤0.01) in the blood pressure of the subjects in group II, III and IV and a non-significant decrease (P≤0.01) were seen in the subjects of group I.
This paper reports on an investigation into the potential of indigenous or natural water treatment methods as alternatives to conventional chemical water treatment methods. The seeds of Pysum sativum natural plant species was evaluated for the removal of turbidity,and their efficiency were compared with that of alum. The use of a solar energy-saving method to disinfect drinking water was evaluated. The study revealed that for raw water with turbidity of 20, 40, 80 NTU, coagulation with seed extract from natural plant species reduced natural turbidity by 85, 81.25 and 74.35 percent when the seed extract was used as the primary coagulant. Leaving samples of water clarified by natural coagulants on a black-painted roof for 6 hours achieved up to 100 percent bacteria kill in summer season.
Barkat Ali khan, Ahmad Zubair, Sher Ali Khan and Zahoor Ud-Din
Field surveys were conducted in the major growing areas of fruits and vegetables in districts of Peshawar, Haripur, D.I.Khan and Bannu regarding use of pesticides by local farmers on these crops during July-August 2008 and March- May 2009. On the basis of questionnaires, forty five vegetable and twenty five fruit growers were interviewed and information were obtained on their knowledge and practices about pesticide application on fruits & vegetables. The farmer survey revealed that cypermethrin was the most frequently used pesticide followed by Lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyriphos, imidacloprid, emamectin benzoate, methomyl, metalaxyl, endosulfan and dimethoate. In order to assess contamination level of fruits and vegetables, 300 samples of five vegetables (okra, tomato, eggplant, cauliflower and spinach) and 60 samples of two fruits (guava and peach) were collected from farmers’ fields/orchards and analysed for residue levels of the pesticides reported in the survey. Residues were extracted with ethyl acetate, cleaned up on GPC and determined by HPLC technique. Results from the residue analyses corroborate the findings of the farmer survey. The most commonly detected residues were those of cypermethrin (8% of 360 samples), lambdacyhalothrin (5.6%), chlorpyriphos (2.8%) and emamectin, methomyl, metalaxyl (1.9%). Out of total 360 samples analyzed, 35% samples were found contaminated with pesticide residues at or below MRL and 8% of samples contained pesticide residues above MRL while in 65% of the samples no residues were found. The samples with residues above MRL may pose health hazards to the consumers. It may be due to lack of awareness of the farmers about the application dose, method of application and withholding period. The mismanagement or non-availability of proper information about the pesticide application can lead to contamination of food crops with pesticide residues.
Arvjen Lushaj, Arnisa Lushaj, Sunitha N. Seenappa, Bashkim Lushaj, Klodian Sina and Ervin Bucpapaj
With the mean global temperature increase due to GHGs generated by the uncontrollable act of anthropogenic intensive and progressive science and technological developments, today our ease of life has become a great cost. Since Kyoto Protocol, Rio, 1992, indigenous knowledge has been debated in numerous international floras for not only mitigation of GHGs but for ecological pressures crisis. Current trends and recognition has spread issues of biodiversity and intellectual property to natural disaster preparedness, impact assessment, food security and climate change mitigation & adaptation keeping in mind the Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) of indigenous peoples who have recognized the global changes in the life-line sectors of climate. Albania is not far behind in the progress of mitigation and adaptation; being a developed country although found to be a relatively low net emitter of GHGs, with relatively low per capita CO2 emissions, due to the fact of 95% of electricity utilization from hydro power sources. However, energy sector contributes to over 60% of total emissions. still Albania is making rapid strides towards ecological stabilization for sustainability because by 2020 there will be an increase of five times higher GHG emissions due to urban energy usage that comes from other means. Already collaboration between indigenous knowledge holders and mainstream scientific research is generating new co-produced knowledge relevant for effective adaptation action on the grounds of mitigation of Global Warming. The current paper profiles the tremendous steps taken by the Albania Government in mitigation lines of GHGs and adaptation strategies implemented through an array of schemes. Documentation by taking records of other Nations on the importance of indigenous people and their Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) in handling of changing and/or changed climatic factors and alternative measures to cope up with the current trends to provide similar considerations for Albania. The authors provide new aspects of research and development in lines of eco-friendly sustainable and renewable methodologies to mitigate GHGs generation by bio-conversions of urban wet garbage, agricultural wastes and agro-industrial effluents. The stress is also laid on reforestations by making use of barren mined land areas and uncultivable hilly areas for biomass energy productions through bamboo plantations without hampering the food crop productions but to generate renewable sustainable bio-fuels for “green energy” that lines with carbon credits, ecological balance and upliftment of poorer rural sectors.
This paper presents the technical and analytical challenges that must be addressed to enable high penetration levels of distributed renewable energy technologies. This paper shows the health clinic electrification with an emphasis on the use of Renewable Energy. Rural health clinics in developing countries are the last link in a fragile lifeline of support. This lifeline of infrastructure has technical, financial, managerial, and educational dimensions. The main aim of this paper is to design a health clinic using hybrid power systems combining wind turbines, solar photovoltaic systems, storage devices and fuel cells.
Energy intensity of different economies The graph shows the ratio between energy usage and GNP for selected countries. GNP is based on 2004 purchasing power sarity and 2000 dollars adjusted for inflation (1). Energy consumption per capita versus the GNP per capita The graph plots the per capita energy versus the per capita income for all countries with more than 20 million inhabitants, the data more than 90% of the world's population. The image shows the broad relation between wealth and energy consumption (2).
W.K.J. Kwenin, J.M. Seidu, F. Boadi-Amoah and T. Cudjoe
Rabbit meat (either from game or domesticated) is preserved by smoking over fire from wood for future use but this traditional method of preservation adversely affect the quality of the final product. This study was designed to determine the suitability and effectiveness of locally constructed solar panels in drying rabbit meat at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Mechanisation of the University of Education, Winneba (Mampong-Ashanti campus). Sixteen New Zealand White Rabbits (six months old) of mean live weights 2,215±8 g were dressed and split into four quarters and dried in six different constructed solar panels. Temperature recordings in the solar panels were higher (ranged between 27.75oC to 45.40 oC) than the open air or ambient which recorded between 26.25 oC to 37.00 oC. smoking of four quarters of rabbit meat served as the control experiment. Proximate analysis revealed that solar dried rabbit meat on dry basis contained 9.24 to 15.42% moisture, 72.39 to 77.01% protein, 10.36 to 11.24% fat and 1.79 to 3.49% ash. The low moisture content of the dried meat in the solar panels in five days is an indication of the effectiveness of the solar panels in drying rabbit meat. Bacteria identified and isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp and Salmonella spp. The total viable count of dried rabbit meat was 3.395 log10 cfu/g. The total viable mould count of 3.015 log10 cfu/g on dried meat was an indication that the dried meat was wholesome for consumption. Eight (8) trained panellists evaluated the organoleptic properties of the dried rabbit meat for various attributes such as colour, aroma, juiciness, texture, flavour and overall acceptability. Rabbit meat dried in the solar panels was extremely acceptable than the smoked and fresh. Whole grasscutter carcasses should be dried using the solar panels in further studies.
J.D.Saroch, Shama Tahseen, Rekha Shrivastav, T.A.Qureshi and Susan Manohar
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of mercuric chloride induced histological alterations in the liver of a freshwater catfish, Clarias gariepinus. The fishes were exposed to 0.6 mg/l of HgCl2 for 30 days. The most common changes in liver of fishes were loosening of hepatic tissue, vacuolated cell cytoplasm, enucleation and eccentric nuclei. Exposure to 0.6 mg/l HgCl2 caused dose and duration dependent histopathological alterations in the liver of Clarias gariepinus. The lesions in liver might have resulted in physiologic dysregulations. In the long run, therefore, HgCl2 exposures to even sublethal concentrations may pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population. Spirulina was used as an additive in the basal feed and recovery was observed in the histological architecture of liver of 0.6 mg/l HgCl2 toxicated fishes.
Hypertension is the one of the major burning health problem which the society is facing presently. In spite of achieving all the comforts of life, still men has surrounded himself in stressful environment because of his undisciplined dietary and daily regimen, which is the main cause of Hypertension. Presently majority of Indian population is suffering from Hypertension, out of which more than 94% cases belong to Primary Hypertension for which multifactorial mechanism such as overactivity of renin angiotensin system, increased sympathetic activity, increased salt intake, early atherosclerotic changes due to faulty food habits, smoking & alcohol have been attributed. Moreover, the medicine needs to be taken lifelong leaving behind unnecessary side effects in majority of cases. Keeping in view this limitation of modern science and to provide economic, simple and effective management, present study has been carried out to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Madhuparnyadi extract based herbal formulation on above mentioned disease. A single blind comparative study was conducted on two groups of 25 patients each for a period of one month. Group A was given Madhuparnyadi extract based herbal formulation whereas Group B was given standard control drug (Sarpagandha root Ghanavati). Study revealed that the trial drug is significantly effective in relieving the subjective and objective parameters of primary hypertension. Moreover it has shown promising results on Headache and palpitation which should be studied further.
Pramod Kulkarni, Mohan Bhujbal, Yogesh Kad and Dipak Bhosale
Anhydrous ferric sulfate has been found to be an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of imines. The reaction proceeds in high yields at ambient temperature and in short time. The reaction has been studied with a variety of carbonyl compounds and amines.
The BOD estimation was done from April 2011 to March 2012 of Sikrahana river water at two spots. One spot was sapaha ghat (G1) which is 1.5 kms from the sagauli railway junction while the other was Dhanahi ghat (G2) which is 11 kms from the same junction. The exact location of the study spot is 26o46’48”N and 84o43’48”E. The river is perennial throughout the year. During the study period, value of BOD was ranging from 4.1 mg/l to 6.4 mg/l at spot G1 while at spot, G2 it was from 4.5 mg/l to 6.6 mg/l.
Bombyx mori L. is principal silk producing insect of great commercial value. Nutritive values of leaves are responsible for the development of larvae, pupa, adult and silk production. The dietary nutritional management influences directly on quality and quantity of silk production in B. Mori .The supplementation and fortification of mulberry leaves is a recent technique in sericulture research .The strain of PM x CSR2 of Bombyx mori. L. fed with different medicinal plant extracts on first, second and third instar larvae, administration of Phyllanthus niruri on first instar larvae of PM x CSR2 hybrid resulted positive response with respect to larval weight (0.064, and 30.58g/10) of fifth and eight day of first instar administered batch with reduced total larval mortality (11%). Whereas the minimum of the same was encountered in control lots (0.026, 29. 99g/10 and 24.60%). Adathoda vasica (0.060, 30.23 g/10 and 14.60%) and Terminalia bellirica (0.038, 30.09g/10 and 21.80%) were found next best in the order of merit. Similar trends were observed among second and third instar administered batches.