Research Paper in Archive

Non-Conventional Power Sources: Part-I. Study on the Qualitative Aspects of the eaves of Vinca rosea as New Nonconventional Bio-Electrochemical Low Power Source

Manisha C. Patil, M. N. Lidhure and C. J. Patil

Bio-chemical properties of plant leaves have been used to develop the on conventional bioelectrical energy sources for micropower electronic devices and are termed as bio-emf-devices (BEDs). The peculiar characteristics details of the Bio ectro devices using leaves of ornamental importance and ayurvedic medicinal plant from the family Apocynaceae viz. Vinca rosea have been studied. The qualitative aspects of the leaves to develop non-conventional bio-electrochemical low power sources have been attempted. Here qualitative result indicates the possible involvement of bio-activities in the operational mechanism of bio-emf-devices.

The effect of Eugenia jambolana on Zinc in 1.0N Hydrochloric acid environment

P. Deepa rani, A. Petchiammal, S. Selvaraj,T. Nanthini and S. Mariammal

The adsorption and inhibitive efficacy of Eugenia jambolana fruit peel (EJFP) extract on zinc in 1n hydrochloric acid with various exposure time (24 to 360hrs) and temperature (303 to 323k) are investigated by mass loss measurements. The value of inhibition efficiency is increased with increase of inhibitor concentration and decreased with increase of exposure time. In temperature studies the percentage of inhibition efficiency is increased with rise in temperature is suggestive of chemisorption process. The inhibitor obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The values of activation energy (ΔEa), free energy of adsorption (ΔG ads), heat of adsorption (Qads), enthalpy of adsorption (ΔH) and entropy of adsorption (ΔS) were calculated. The alcoholic extract of inhibitor and corrosion products formed on the metal surface is characterized by UV, FT-IR and XRD spectral studies.

Chemical Characterization of Some Toxic Elements of Lumbardhi River

Naser Troni, Fatmir Faiku, Fatbardh Gashi, Ramiz Hoti, Valdet Teneqja, Fisnik Laha and Remzi Berisha

Generally, the surface waters in our country are permanent polluted and is e matter of fact that our cities are yet without any treating equipment program of urban anindustrial wastewaters. The main goal of this research was to analyze some environmental toxic elements downstream the river were they end up as natural recipients. Development and modernization of new techniques of measurement are used successfully with very sensitive methods and new electrodes, to detect different chemical and physical forms of metal traces and distribution of their ionic species in the natural equilibrium of waters. Even these methods are based on chemical-physical treatment of champions by displacing certain metal concentrations of all forms through displacement equilibrium into free ionic metal statements, from analytical aspects determination of all active ionic chemical species in model systems is the real overview. The mass concentration of some ecotoxic elements of the river Lumbardhi are determined with DPASV and they are compared with the results of ICP/MS techniques. It is important to point the fact that also this river is permanent polluted from every kind of trash yard from urban enters, which are discharged in the river watercourse. The mass concentrations of lead, zinc and copper ions in the analyzed samples were evidently higher than their natural concentrations levels in this kind of water, while the cadmium ions were generally in their natural concentrations levels. Concentration of toxic elements which we received from surface waters are compared with the results received for the source where anthropogenic effects aren’t present (the part of river in the mountain). We have conclude that water resources of Kosovo’s are endangered by the pollution caused from human bean. As first step further, surface water pollution has to be stopped and to improve the existing condition. It is necessary prevention, monitoring and reduce of scale pollution, to ensure the quality level, biological equilibrium and these water ecosystem and at those places where quality rehabilitation is possible.

Kinetics of Oxidation of Metronidazole with N-Bromophthalimide in Aqueous Acetic Acid Medium

Santosh Kumar Singh, M.U. Khan, M.N.Swami, S.S.Parihar, Saras Tiwari and S.K.Nigam

a kinetic study of oxidation of mitronidazole (MTZ) is an anti-bacterial and anti-protozoal drug, with n-bromophthalimide (NBP) has been carried out in presence of HClO4 in aqueous acetic acid medium, at 308 k. the reaction is fully hclo4 acid catalyzed and negligible effect was observed when phthalimide was added in reaction mixture. Variation of ionic strength of the medium shows negligible effect on rate of reaction. Increasing in dielectric permittivity of the medium; increases the rate oxidation. The stoichiometry of the reaction was found to be 1:1. The reported oxidation product of mtz was identified as the 2-methyl-5-nitro imidazole n1-acetaldehyde, which was detected by conventional methods and spot tests. Various activation parameters have been evaluated. The reaction constants involved in the proposed mechanisms were computed. The proposed mechanisms was good consistent with the observed experimental results.

Chemical examination and Corrosion inhibitive efficiency
of Acacia raddiana

Ranveer Singh and Sangeeta Bhargava

Acacia raddiana belongs to family leguminosae. It is well known for the traditional use of “Arabic gum”.It is a medicinal plant, which has been investigated phytochemically only for polyphenols. Air-dried chipped heartwood weighing (5kg) was refluxed with petroleum ether (60-80°c) over a steam bath. The defatted heartwood was then exhaustively extracted with chloroform. Extracts were mixed and fractionated with pet. ether, benzene, ethyl acetate and methanol. Column chromatography of these fractions over silica gel (60-120 mesh) afforded noctacosanol,3-Acetyl-b-Sitosterol, g-Sitosterol, Betulin, Friedelin. Characterizations of these compounds were established mainly by UV and 1HNMR spectroscopy. The corrosion inhibition of aluminium by acacia raddiana in acidic medium has been evaluated by mass loss method. The result obtained show that heart wood extract serve as effective inhibitor for the corrosion of aluminum in acidic medium. Values of inhibition efficiency obtained from the method are in good agreement and are dependent upon the concentration of inhibitors and acid.

L-Asparaginase:An Enzyme of Medicinal Value


Enzymes are biocatalysts that are protein in nature, colloidal and thermo labile in character, and specific in their action, synthesized by living cells. Enzymes have broad range of applications that are widely used in food industry, leather, wool industries, diary industry and medical applications. Many enzymes have been used as drugs; likewise Lasparaginase has been used as anti-tumour agent for the effective treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and as food processing aid to reduce the formation of acryl amide during frying of starchy foods at high temperature. It is a naturally occurring intracellular enzyme found in a variety of plants and micro-organisms. It is available in three preparations, two of which are native forms purified from bacterial sources. These include Escherichia coli and Erwinia caratovora, respectively. A third preparation peglyated(PEG)-L-Asparaginase is a chemically modified form of the enzyme in which native E.Coli L-asparaginase has been covalently conjugated to polyethylene glycol.This enzyme exerts its antitumour activity by depleting circulating pools of Lasparagine.For pharmacological and clinical tests, microbial sources are best for the bulk production of LA.

Iron Fractionation in the Sediments of Kerala Coast

Manju P. Nair and Sujatha C. H

This study gives the first report on the spatial changes of different iron fractions in the sediments of Kerala Coast. Sediments were collected from four prominent areas of Kerala Coast. A sequential extraction procedure was applied to identify the forms of Fe. This scheme extracts different chemical forms of metals in five sequential steps, namely- exchangeable (EXC), carbonate –bound (CA), Fe-Mn oxide– bound (FMO), organic matter–bound (OM), and residual (RES) fractions of metals. Most content of Fe was found in residual fraction in all designated sites.Comparatively Cochin revealed to be more viable for secondary pollution due to high content of EXC and CA. FMO fraction recorded in the sampling site was rich at Cochin and poor at Trivandrum. This exposes the greater scavenching ability of hydrous iron oxide from the water column. OM fractions are the second largest key scavenger for the heavy metals was high at Cochin and low at Trivandrum. Principal component analysis and correlation analysis were done to understand the interrelationship between the parameters. Principal component analysis showed two components govern the distribution of Fe fraction in the study area. Correlation analysis revealed except residual fraction all the other fraction were directly related to TOC, mud content, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and total hydrogen.

Iterative Super linear-Convergence SVD Beam forming Algorithm for MIMO-OFDM Systems

Sankarayya.S and Jenopaul. P

Energy production by systematic treatment of banana waste, A remedy to pollution control and global warming

Ragaranjan, D. K., Raghu Babu, K.,

India being agriculture based country; it is the leading producer of banana crop. The banana waste generated in two forms, one is at the time of re-cropping and the other is due to natural calamities like excess and lack of rains. This on decomposition releases Green House Gases (GHG) like CH4, CO2, H2S etc. These GHG can be controlled by systematic treatment of banana waste. During the treatment CH4 released can be used as a substitute to fossil fuels for energy production. Ramananuthanapalli, Ippatla, Gunakanapalli of Lingala mandal of Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh, India is chosen for case study of present work. The study area lies in the Survey of India Toposheet No. 57j3 between north latitudes of 14015’ and 14030’ and eastern longitudes of 78000’ and 78015’ and comprises of 464 hectors of banana cultivation which produces a waste of about 1,20,000 tons of waste per crop over a period of 8-9 months. Improper disposal of this huge waste producing energy content equivalent nearly 38, 40,000 litres of diesel. Further it produces around 10,000 tons of biofertilizer which can be utilized for improving soil fertility and high yield. In the present study zeolites have been used for segregation of gaseous mixture from the digester.

Adsorptive Removal of SO2 by Magnesium Carbonate (MgCO3)

D. Sirisha, K. Mukkanti and N. Gandhi

Sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas is colourless with a pungent smell and is efficiently absorbed in upper respiratory tract. Lacrimation, rhinorrhoea, cough,bronchial secretion and bronchoconstriction occur at high concentrations of SO2. The combustion of fossil fuels and power generation is a major source of SO2 gas in the environment. The present study deals with the experimental investigations carried out for controlling SO2 gas by magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). It found that the amount of gas adsorbed by magnesium carbonate is 50% at low concentrations and 31% at high concentrations. The experiments conducted with respect to contact time, with respect to effect on inlet gas concentration of SO2, and with respect to magnesium carbonate dosages.

Heavy Metals Deposition in a Dry Tropical Urban Environment in Indore

Asutosh Kumar Pandey

Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization lead atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and dust load to become a global problem. The deposition of dust and seven heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cu) at selected urban and sub –urban sites of Indore. Dust- fall samples from different sampling location collected and selected heavy metals viz. Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cu in them determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Average flux of 2.88, 0.33, 2.96, 12.22, 22.27 and 2.89 g h-1 y-1 measured for Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cu respectively. The result has shown that dust load significantly higher in summer and winter as compared to rainy season. The deposition rate of Ni, Pb, Mn and Cr were significantly higher during summer and that of Cd, Cu and Zn deposition rates were highest during winter.

Physiochemical and Phytochemical Study of Needles of Pinus gerardiana

Atul Kabra, Ruchika Garg and Bharat Parashar

To examine the secondary metabolite present in the pine needle extract of Pinus gerardiana. Phytochemical screening of the needle extract was done to determine the phytochemical constituents in the various solvents studied. The phytochemical study carried out on the needle extracts of Pinus gerardiana confirms the existence of secondary metabolites such as Phenols, Alkaloid, Tannins,Flavonoids, and Tannins. The study suggests that the leaf extract of Pinus gerardiana can be best utilized n developing bioactive compound against pathogenic infection.

Gene Therapy A Solution to Genetic Diseases

Ighere D.A, and Okere A.U

Over the years, some diseases have come to plague the human race that there appears to be no solution in sight. The emergence of gene therapy techniques has gradually unveiled the mystery behind these diseases and at the same time provides promising therapeutic measures to these disease conditions.Gene Therapy has exposed researchers to the effective and promising ways to tackle diseases that are genetic in nature. This review article articulates the major landmark achievements of Gene Therapy over the years while also enunciating the different approaches that used in delivering therapeutic genes to target host cells.In gene therapy, a therapeutic gene could be delivered to the host target cell through a viral vector or non-viral vector. In viral vector delivery of therapeutic gene, a modified virus that lacks a pathogenic gene used to deliver the therapeutic gene to the host. The technique of gene therapy involves the correction of defective genes responsible for disease development. Researchers use one of several approaches for correcting faulty genes: A normal gene may be inserted into a nonspecific location within the genome to replace a nonfunctional gene.This approach is most common. An abnormal gene could be swapped for a normal gene through homologous recombination. The abnormal gene could be repaired through selective reverse mutation, which returns the gene to its normal function.The regulation (the degree to which a gene is turned on or off) of a particular gene could be altered. Cancer is one of the major diseases that researchers are trying to use gene therapy to cure. Cancer is a disease that occurs because of multiple mutations in a cell that cause the cell to proliferate out of control.

Analysis on Rainfall Variation over the Past 55 Years in Guyuan City, China

Zhang Zhihua, Liu Rui, Qian Hui, Chen Jie and Zhang Xuedi,

Based on the rainfall series data collected from five meteorological stations in Guyuan City, the characteristics of rainfall variation over the past 55 years were analyzed with the methods of Kriging interpolation, Mann-Kendall nonparametric test, regression analysis and trend method. It can be found that the temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall is non-uniform in Guyuan City. Rainfall reduces gradually from south to north while the decreasing tendency increasing.Annual rainfall shows a decreasing tendency, but the decreasing amplitude is pretty smaller (3.7 mm/10a). According to the changing of seasons, the heaviest rainfall appears in summer, which accounts for 54.87%~57.35% of whole year rainfall. The lightest rainfall appears in winter, which accounts for 1.97%~3.97% of whole year rainfall. Rainfall has changed a lot with decades in Guyuan City. Annual average rainfall in 1960s is the heaviest. However, rainfall amounts reduced continuously since 1990s. After the year of 2000, annual average rainfall is the lightest.

Solid Waste Management; Clean India by Reduce Solid Waste

Amit Bajaj and Vipan Kumar

In India the solid waste increasing rapidly day by day due to increasing the living standards of human beings by leaps & bounds in India approximately last twenty years and due to increasing population. The handling of solid waste in India is not up to the mark. We always consider that it is a total waste thing, but if we reduce,reuse or recycle it becomes a very useful thing. The poor handling of solid waste cause of increases the pollution, human beings health, Rising global temperatures,animals, and many types of ecosystems and bad effect on environment. In this paper we describe that solid waste handling is not a single man work; it is the sole responsibility of all the human beings to maintain the balance of the ecosystem by proper handling the solid wastes. In this paper we also describe that the role of human being to reduce the solid waste and government of India.

Physicochemical Characterization, Chlorination and Flocculation of Waters of the River Djoue (Congo-Brazzaville)

Timolaon Andzi Barha, Rodrigue Safou Tchiama and Fulbert Bouaka

Flocculation-coagulation and chlorination are very widely treatment processes of the water. These treatments allow reducing the colour and the turbidity caused by organic and inorganic contaminants at the acceptable levels for drinking water or for wastewater. The aim of our study is to characterize waters of the river Djoue, to determine, respectively, the optimal dose of their disinfection by hypochlorite of calcium (Ca(ClO)2) and of their treatment (flocculation-coagulation) by the combination of sulfate of aluminum (Al2(SO4)3, 18H2O) and lime (Ca(OH)2). It appears from all the results that, the best treatment by flocculation-coagulation is obtained by the application of a combination of 20 mg/L from sulfate of aluminum and from 10 mg/L of lime. Whereas the best conditions of disinfection are obtained for 6 mg/L of hypochlorite of calcium and a pH value 8.32

Study on photochemically and chemically generated singlet oxygen quenching rate constant of quercetin

R. Malathy and M.Rajendran

Flavonoids are polyphenols widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, and have been shown to be good antioxidants. The antioxidant process includes the scavenging of activated electrophilic species, oxygen radicals, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals. The present study aim is to investigate the singlet oxygen (energetic oxygen) quenching rate constant, by quercetin, using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The kinetic study is performed in acid medium (pH 4.4), basic medium (pH 7.4) and neutral pH 7.0 under aerobic visible light irradiation. The species of singlet oxygen are photogenerated and bleaches the pnitrosodimethylaniline (RNO). The singlet oxygen quenching rate constant of quercetin in pH 7.4, pH 7.0 and pH 4.4 are determined chemically and photochemically. The quenching rate constant was determined by using the Stern–Volmer plots. Our results indicate that the quenching rate constant value increases as the pH increases. The photostability of quercetin – metal mixtures especially for Zn(II) and Al(III) are studied and their stability was compared with free quercetin.These studies may be crucial in optimizing health and increasing longevity by reducing oxidative stress and biological damage.

Development Of Mosquito Repelent Emulsion Paint From Neem Seed Oil

S.A. Osemeahon, A.J. Hotton, and F.G. Fadawa

The effect of Neem oil (NO) as additive on emulsion paint (EP) for the purpose of developing mosquito repellant paint was investigated. NO was extracted and used to modify an EP to produce Neem oil modified emulsion paint (NOMEP).The effect of pure NO, EP and NOMEP on mosquito repellency were studied. The effect of coat thickness, coverage area and concentration of NOMEP on mosquito repellency were equally studied. It was observed that mosquito repellency increase with NO concentration, coverage area and coat thickness. The result from coat thickness showed a repellent effect of up to 36 days. While that of EP could sustain for one day (24hrs). Experiment on physical properties of EP and NOMEP showed that pH, viscosity, opacity, adhesion and tackiness decreased with increase in NO inclusion in NOMEP. Other properties such as drying time i.e touch dry (TD) and hard dry (HD), with gloss increased with an increase in NO. The NOMEP passed the test for properties such as resistance to blistering, stability and chemical resistant. NOMEP maintained the integrity of most of the important properties of paint, except the setback coming from the drying time. This study proved NOMEP as a potential mosquito repellant paint, and this may produce a novel paint to the coating industry.

The Behaviour of Some Bread Wheat Cultivar the Attack of Pathogen Leaf Rust in Albania

Hekuran VRAPI and Belul GIXHARI

Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina is the most common rust disease of wheat. The fungus is an obligate parasite capable of producing infectious urediniospores as long as infected leaf tissue remains alive. Both grain yield and disease performance are important factors to consider for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar selection.However, disease index and yield data are often presented separately, making it difficult to compare values across multiple environments. Eight wheat cultivars were planted at each of two Albania locations (Korçë and Lushnje) in 2010, 2011 and 2012. Plots were assessed two times during the growing season for leaf rust. Within each location–year,cultivars were ranked for Disease index of the leaf rust disease and for grain yield.Correlations between two measured characters (disease index = Imc in %) for leaf rust LR (Puccinia recondita f. sp. Tritici) and grain yield in year average 2010, 2011 and 2012 were also evaluated for all wheat cultivars. Analysis of variance revealed the presence of an important and significant variability in the experimental materials used to evaluate the succeptibility and the resistance of common wheat cultivars against Leaf rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp. Tritici). Significant differences were also observed among 8 common wheat cultivars for all agronomic traits. There were high negative correlations between yield -- (disease index = Imc in %) for LR (Puccinia recondita f. sp. Tritici) (r = - 0,7584) in year 2010 and (r - 0,7889) year 2011 and (r - 0,8205) year 2012.According to study results the wheat cultivars Bullgar 3 * KB 703, Regina * L-776 l have shown more high level of resistance against LR (Puccinia recondita f. sp. Tritici)

Quality Assessment of Khoa Marketed in Nanded City

S. J. Bajaj, Y.D. Deshmukh, A.L. Shirfule, K. P. Deshmukh, P. D. Satav

Forty market Koha samples collected from the retail sweet shops in a randomized manner dividing the city in to five zones were analyzed. Most of the market Koha samples reflected relatively lower chemical attributes except moisture and ash which were comparatively higher in market samples than control. Though majority of market Koha samples were of acceptable physicochemical quality & were well thinning the legal standards. However, the microbiological quality of market Khoa samples was posing a grim picture when expressed in terms of TVC, coliform and yeast and mould counts.

Management of Spodoptera litura (Fabr.) and Helicoverpa armigera (Mats.) in Soybean with newer insecticides

M.M.,Vinaykumar, K.L., Raghvani, Krishna Naik, L, Abdul Khadar Biradar, and G.S., Chandrashekar

With a view to evaluate the bio-efficacy of newer insecticides against Spodoptera litura (Fabr.) and Helicoverpa armigera (Mats.) in soybean, a field experiment was conducted at Instructional Farm, College of Agriculture, Junagadh during kharif-2009. Among eleven different insecticides tested against S.litura and H. armigera Spinosad 0.025 per cent, rynaxypyr 0.006 per cent, thiodicarb 0.15 per cent, indoxacarb 0.0029 per cent and flubendiamide 0.05 per cent were found most effective against S. litura. And remaining treatments were moderately effective in managing S.litura. Whereas, indoxacarb 0.0029 per cent,spinosad 0.025 per cent, thiodicarb 0.15 per cent and rynaxypyr 0.006 per cent were found most effective against H.armigera.

Management of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Aphid, Aphis glycines (Matsumura) in Soybean with newer insecticides">

M.M.,Vinaykumar, K.L., Raghvani, Abdul Khadar Biradar Krishna Naik, L. and G.S., Chandrashekar

With a view to evaluate the bio-efficacy of newer insecticides against Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Aphid, Aphis glycines (Matsumura)in soybean, a field experiment was conducted at Instructional Farm, College of Agriculture, Junagadh during kharif-2009. The results of relative efficacy of eleven different insecticides against whitefly revealed that imidacloprid 0.008 per cent, endosulfan 0.07 per cent and quinalphos 1.5 per cent dust @ 25 kg/ha were found most effective. Whereas, thiamethoxam 0.01 per cent, spinosad 0.025 per cent and cartap hydrochloride 0.05 per cent were found moderately effective against whitefly. And imidacloprid 0.008 per cent, endosulfan 0.07 per cent and quinalphos @ 25 kg/ha were found most effective treatments against aphid, Aphis gossyssi on soybean. Other treatments viz., thiamethoxam 0.01 per cent, spinosad 0.025 per cent, lufenuron 0.005 per cent and cartap hydrochloride 0.05 per cent were found moderately effective against aphid. While, indoxacarb 0.0029 per cent, thiodicarb 0.15 per cent, rynaxypyr 0.006 per cent and flubendiamide 0.05 per cent were found less effective against aphid on soybean."

Non-Conventional Power Sources: Part-I. Study on the Qualitative Aspects of the Leaves of Vinca rosea as New Nonconventional Bio-Electrochemical Low Power SourceΨ

Manisha C. Patil, M. N. Lidhure and C. J. Patil

Bio-chemical properties of plant leaves have been used to develop the nconventional bioelectrical energy sources for micropower electronic devices and are termed as bio-emf-devices (BEDs). The peculiar characteristics details of the Bio electro devices using leaves of ornamental importance and ayurvedic medicinal plant from the family Apocynaceae viz. Vinca rosea have been studied. The qualitative aspects of the leaves to develop non-conventional bio-electrochemical low power sources have been attempted. Here qualitative result indicates the possible involvement of bio-activities in the operational mechanism of bio-emf-devices.

Emofuel to Save Earth

J.S. Waghmare, Asma D. Fakir, Sadanand S. Kadam

Diesel engines are widely used as the driving power for both in-lands as well as marine transportation vehicles. It is because of Diesel engines has rigid structure, low breakdown rate, high thermal efficiency and high fuel economy. Because of these advantages of diesel engines, it is expected that diesel engines will be widely used in the upcoming future. However, nitrogen oxide and particulate matter these are the pollutants,which are emitted from diesel, and they are harmful to the health of living beings and environment. Therefore, diesel has been recognized as the major air pollution source in metropolitan areas. Because of this problem occurs by using diesel as engine fuel thus attracted much research interest. In the recent several years, the technology of application of emulsion fuels to many boilers, furnaces and diesel engines has attracted much attention from the point of view of the energy saving and of the prevention of atmospheric pollution.It is, mainly due to the recent high cost of crude oil. Emulsion fuel is a blend of existing fuel oil (heavy oil, light oil, kerosene etc) mixed with about 10-30% water. It is a new type of fuel used in internal combustion chambers such as engines; boilers etc and can reduce fuel consumption and emissions like NOx, PM and smoke by improving fuel efficiency. Many studies on emulsion fuels reveal that they have various benefits, including improvement in combustion efficiency and a reduction in particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. This review article provides information of emulsion, emulsion types, stability problems and emulsion fuel mechanism.

Kinetic Study on Oxidation of Some Ketones by Nicotinium Dichromate in Aqueous Acetic Acid Medium

H.L. Prajapati, M.U. Khan, Santosh Kumar Singh S.S.Parihar and P.K.Singh

A kinetic study of oxidation of some aliphatic ketones with Nicotiniun dichromate has been carried out in presence of H2SO4 in aqueous acetic acid medium, at 313 K., the reactions are fully H2SO4 acid and Cu2+ ion catalyzed and negligible effect was observed when KCl was added in reaction mixture. Variation of ionic strength of the medium shows accelerating effect on rate of reaction. Increasing in dielectric permittivity of the medium; increases the rate oxidation. The stoichiometries of the reactions were found to be 3:1. The reported oxidation products of aliphatic ketones were identified as the methyl glyoxal and diones, which was detected by conventional methods and spot tests. Various activation parameters have been evaluated. The reaction constants involved in the proposed mechanisms were computed. The proposed mechanisms was good consistent with the observed experimental results.

Antimicrobial Properties of Methanolic, Water And Chloroform Extracts of Psidium Guajava (L) Roots.

Ngoroyemoto N, Mushore J, Dhliwayo, J and Dzomba P .

The research sought to establish the antimicrobial activities of methanolic, aqueous and chloroform extracts of Psidium guajava (L.) roots. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were tested using the disc diffusion method3. It was observed that the methanolic extracts of P. guajava were active against Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Aspergillus oryzae.Methanolic extracts showed a higher  antimicrobial activity as compared to the chloroform extracts and the aqueous extracts against E.coli and L.acidophilus. The chloroform extracts had no effect on the test microorganisms used for the antifungal susceptibility tests. It was also observed that chloroform and aqueous extracts had no antifungal activities against Rhizopus stolonifer and A. oryzae.Only the methanolic extracts at a concentration of 100μg ml¯1 had an effect on the growth of A. oryzae. These results suggest that P. guajava root extracts possess compounds containing antibacterial properties that can be used in medicines for the treatment of infectious diseases. Alternative drug formulation for the treatment of cholera such as erythromycin and tetracycline are fast becoming ineffective due to development of drug resistance by new strains of Vibrio cholera. Instead P.guajava might be used as an alternative form of treatment.

The Chemical Composition of Tender Coconut (Cocos Nucifera L.) Water and Coconut Meat and Their Biological Effect in Human Body

Reni Mullukattil Lukose

Coconut water and coconut meat is one of the natural food products to quench thirst and easily available in most of the countries. Both water and meat of tender coconut refresh the body by providing nutritious content. Health and medicinal applications of tender coconut product gets research interest in recent years. The application of edible coconut part is due to the different natural components present in it.This review paper aimed to know the main reported components of coconut water and coconut meat, and major studies of their effect in animal body. Vitamins, minerals,amino acids and phytohormones are present in coconut water. Coconut meat also has same component with some fibers.

Photocatalytic Degradation of Brilliant Blue-R by ZnO in Aqueous Media

Vinod Kumar Sharma, Ashok Kumar Kakodia, Bhupendra Kr.Sharma, Sunil Kumar Pamecha and R. C. Khandelw

Photocatalytic degradation of Brilliant Blue-R dye by ZnO has been investigated in aqueous solution. The effects of different parameters such as pH,amount of ZnO, dye concentration and light intensity on the rate of degradation of dye solution were also studied. A tentative mechanism has also been proposed for this photocatalytic degradation.

Use of Photo-Fenton Reagent for Photodegradation of Acid Violet 54 in aqueous solution

Ashok kumar kakodia, Anil Kumar Swarnkar and Bhupendra Kr. Sharma

Advanced oxidation processes (AOP’s) are widely used for the removal of recalcitrant organic constituents from textile industrial and municipal wastewater.Degradation of Acid Violet 54 by Photo-Fenton regent has been investigated under irradiation of visible light in aqueous solution. A detailed investigation of photo degradation of Acid Violet 54 using H2O2/Fe2+ was carried out. It was found that dye degradation is dependent on the concentration of Acid Violet 54, FeSO4, H2O2 and pH of the experimental solution. The optimum condition for the photodegradation of dye was established. The kinetics of degradation of dye in the dilute solution follows first order kinetics.

Photocatalytic Bleaching of Nigrosin WS by ZnO in Aqueous Medium

Sunil Kumar Pamecha, Bhupendra Kr. Sharma, Ashok Kumar Kakodia, Vinod Kumar Sharma and R. C. Khandel

Photocatalytic bleaching of Nigrosin WS dye by ZnO has been investigated in aqueous solution. The effects of different parameters such as pH, amount of ZnO,dye concentration and light intensity on the rate of degradation of dye solution were also studied. A tentative mechanism has also been proposed for this photocatalytic degradation.