Research Paper in Archive

Ethno Medicinal Plants Used By Traditional Healers as Remedy for To Cure Diabetes in Gautala Sanctuary of Kannad Taluka, District Aurangabad (Maharashtra)

Anil A. Kshirsagar, Vikas Gambhire & Ravi Patil

The present paper deals with study of 20 species of ethno medicinal plants which are used by traditional healers for curing diabetes or the peoples living in the vicinity of Gautala Sanctuary of kannad taluka, Aurangabad (Maharashtra) In the present paper ethno medicinal plants can be used by the traditional practitioners. It is an alternative bioresources for the pharmaceutical industries. The tribal community used the traditional knowledge of plants for different diseases. The present survey made by the help of interviews, observation, information and discussion with the practitioners. Though now a days the availability of modern system of medicines such important knowledge of tribal’s are need to be documented and preservation of these practices are an essential task. Keeping this view in mind the present paper information is undertaken. The experienced local practitioners have developed their own way of treatment by acquiring the knowledge for their predecessors.

The Removal of Zinc and Nickel from Aqueous Solution Using Tea Factory Waste as an Adsorbent, Precipitant and its Application in Fixed Bed Column Process

Jatin Modi, Nilesh G. Limbachiya, Haresh N. Gondaliya and Pratik A. Patel

The experiment was conducted at different Tea waste doses. With various pH levels and at various contact times the removal efficiencies achieved for Zinc is around 71% and 66% for Nickel respectively. Maximum efficiency achieved for Zn was around 71% at the tea factory waste dose of 0.5 gm, 5.0 pH and contact time 60 mins. Similarly 66% removal efficiency achieved for Ni at the tea factory waste dose of 0.5 gm, 4.0 pH and contact time of 60 mins. It was observed that 2.0 gm NaOH was enough for treatment of 5 mg/L concentrated Zn and Ni containing wastewater. When the concentration was increased the required dose of NaOH was also increased in its proportion. Removal efficiency has also increased onto the fixed –bed column and achieved around 84% for Zn and 78% for Ni. For this experiment bed height and flow rate was kept constant. If we vary the bed height and flow rate than removal efficiency may also be varied. The efficiency may also increased by varying the stirring speed, temperature, bed height, and flow rate.

Evaluation of Polar and Non-Polar Fractions of Essential Oil from Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf

Vyshali P. and K.J. Thara Saraswathi

The essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Bangalore was fractionated into non-polar and polar fractions using silica column chromatography.The essential oil and the fractions were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oil were citral [neral (30.4%) + geranial (41.8%)], β- myrcene (8.8%) and geraniol (2.2%) along with traces of sesquiterpenes, aliphatic compounds and phenylpropanoids. GC analysis of the non-polar chromatographic fraction along with the β-myrcene standard showed that the non-polar fraction is rich in β-yrcene (≥93.87%) and the polar fraction contained the oxygenated terpenes viz., citral (neral+geranial), geraniol, linalool, isocitral as major constituents.

Comparative Study of the Glycemic Response of Kodu and Barnyard Millets in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

Nagalakshmi. K and D. Annette Beatrice

Diabetes is considered to be one of the expensive life threatening conditions,Lifestyle modification is an important part of the management of diabetes. Millets play an important role in improving blood profile among normal and diabetic subjects. The study aimed at developing and standardizing dosa using Kodu millet and Barnyard Millet and assessing the sensory quality. The Glycemic response of dosa prepared using Kodu millet and Barnyard Millet was tested on Type 2 Diabetic subjects and the same was compared with the standard Rice dosa. It is a pretest post test experimental design. The results showed that the mean overall sensory scores for kodu millet dosa was 4.6, and the barnyard millet dosa, had a score of 4.3, over the total score of 5.0. In comparison, kodu millet dosa had a higher acceptable score than barnyard millet dosa. The mean fasting plasma glucose before the ingestion of kodu dosa and barnyard dosa was 22.70±31.81mg/dl and 116.23±19.46 mg/dl respectively. The mean postprandial plasma glucose levels after consuming kodu dosa and barnyard dosa was 129.29±30.89 mg/dl and 123.58±14.04 mg/dl respectively. The postprandial plasma glucose levels after ingesting the kodu and barnyard dosa was less compared to the glucose levels after consuming rice dosa. The mean decrease of postprandial plasma glucose levels after consuming Rice dosa, kodu millet dosa and barnyard millet dosa was 36.30 ± 21.75 mg/dl, 6.59 ± 4.25 mg/dl and 7.35± 4.33 mg/dl respectively. Millets showed a better glycemic response when compared to the rice dosa.

Effect of Mercuric Chloride on Nucleus Lateralis Tuberis (NLT) in Heteropneustes fossilis and Their Recovery by Spirulina and Chlorella

Neha Pandit and Lata Bhattacharya

Heteropneustes fossilis, when treated with 0.01 ppm of mercuric chloride for 21 days exhibited degeneration, vacuolization, reduced neurosecretory material and hypertrophy in NLT. Their size was significantly (P<0.001) increased after mercuric chloride exposure. In spirulina and chlorella recovery group, these nuclei displayed a gradual reorganization in structural details and size. Fish of both recovery groups exhibited reduced vacuolization and reduced hypertrophy in NLT.

A Review on Chemistry of Mangrove Plants and Prospects of Mangroves as Medicinal Plants

K.Sasidhar. Ch. Tirupathi.,Z.Vishnuvardhan and R. Hema Krishna.

Mangrove areas are rich in medicinal and edible plants. Biological screening of the plants in this study may lead to drug and health product development. Mangrove plants are found to have medicinal values and have been used traditionally by local medical practitioners in worldwide. In nature, more than 65 species of mangrove plants, 18 species are found to be widely used by local medical practitioners in many countries like India, Africa, Southeast Asia, South America, Australia etc. Moreover, ethnobotanical records regarding medical use of mangrove plants are very limited and very unique. Mangroves are world’s most productive ecosystems and support genetically diverse community of terrestrial and aquatic flora and fauna. They provide innumerable direct and indirect benefits to human beings. The plants in the mangrove forest showed the potential as a source of antioxidant and cancer chemoprevention agents and further studies may lead to drug development. The purpose of this review is to identify the potential of mangroves as medicinal plants.

An Etiopathological Study of Kshirna Retas w.s.r to Oligospermia & Therapeutic Effect of Narsing Churna

Arun Dadhich and Harish Kumar Singhal

In our Indian society, fatherhood has always been important from the very beginning and even today it occupies a foremost place in our society. But now a day’s male infertility is surprisingly increasing & putting up a big concern for both patients as well as physicians. In Ayurveda, kshina shukra can be studied under modern parlance as oligospermia and several times it becomes a cause of male infertility and a man is unable to produce progeny. Taking all those things into consideration made up my mind to work on this topic kshina ratus (Oligospermia) & studied therapeutic effect of Narsing Churna. For these 35 patients had been registered of age group 25-50yrs but 5 patient discontinued treatments therefore therapeutic study carried out on 30 patients for 75 days. Follow up done on 40th & after 75th day. This study concluded that various causative factor cause “Anuloma & Pratiloma kshaya” & therapeutic study proven that "Narsingh Churna" increases semen volume, sperm motility and significantly sperm count. It also gives physical and mental well being to the patients and gives hope to childless couples.

Management of Pediatric Hypertension through Ayurveda

Harish Kumar Singhal, Amit Kataria, Neet and Ashu Vinaik

Every individual of this universe want to spend longevity & disease free life pattern and same hope for their children. But their changed lifestyle as well as feeding habits along with not practicing Ayurvedic principles such as regular exercise, avoidance of junked food items, oily spicy foods, polluted foods, veerya virudha foods and Ahara vidhi vidhan create a lot of health related disorders. Hypertension is one of them. Still perusal to Ayurvedic texts provides no straight reference to hypertension but on tunnelling down the texts and arranging the scattered references from different texts, this is evident that hridya and process of Rasa Vikshepa or anudhavana by Vyana Vayu has become helpful to understand the hypertension. Vitiated vata dosha was thought to be chief culprit, as the dhatu gati (Rasagati or Vikshepa) is performed by Vayu itself. Pitta and Kapha compliment the effect of vitiated vata and aid the process of disease progression, with Rasa rakta (whole blood) being the chief mediator of vitiation. Hence, the concept goes in accordance that the disease is Tridoshaja. Management in modern science includes both pharmacologic and non pharmacologic aspect with a lot of adverse effects. Therefore whole universe looks towards Ayurveda for its better & safe treatment. In this article attempt has been made to explore the scientific evidences with the available references to illustrate the possible mechanism & its management.

Adsorption of Methylene blue on Activated Carbon Prepared from Bael Tree (Aegle marmelos) Bark: Equilibrium, Kinetics and Thermodynamic Studies.

S. Valliammai, Y. Subbareddy, K. S. Nagaraja and B.Jeyaraj

Low cost activated carbon was prepared from Bael tree bark by phosphoric acid activation for the removal of Methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The BET surface area of activated carbon of bael tree bark (ACBTB) was 804.18 m²/g. The average pore diameter was found to be 5.52 nm which indicated the mesopore nature of ACBTB. Adsorption studies were performed to determine the effect of various parameters like contact time, adsorbent dose, temperature, concentration and pH. The experimental data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The isothermal adsorption data fitted best to the Langmuir model. The monolayer adsorption capacity of activated carbon was found to be 7.992 x 10-4 mol/g for MB at room temperature. The mean energy of adsorption (E) values was in the range of 18.53 to 20.82 kJ/mol, indicating that chemisorption might be the major mode in the adsorption of MB over the activated carbon. The adsorption kinetics of MB followed the pseudo second order reaction model. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption was spontaneous, endothermic and entropy controlled process. The results reveal that this novel biosorbent has a potential to be used as an economical adsorbent for the removal of MB from aqueous solution.

Emulsification of Some Vegetable Oils Using A Locally Sourced Emulsifier.

P. Audu and S. G. Yiase

The possibility of using the derivative of beeswax as a natural emulsifier for some organic solvents and some vegetable oils was examined. Beeswax was extracted from honey comb and then base-saponified. The product of saponification was used with borax solution at some selected ratios as emulsifier mixtures to prepare aqueous emulsion of petroleum ether (60-80), benzene, kerosene, coconut oil, beniseed oil, and palm kernel oil. The stability of the emulsions prepared was evaluated using time for separation of phases for each of the organic solvents and vegetable oils and at each of the selected ratios of the emulsifier mixture. The results showed that honey comb contains 4.7% beeswax. There is increase in emulsion stability using this emulsifier mixture. The stability increases with increasing amount of borax in the mixture. The systems with the hydrocarbon solvents possessed far less stability compared to those with the vegetable oils. It was also found that the systems with beniseed oil have the highest value of stability. Reasons for these behaviours have been suggested.

Study of Antioxidant Property and Flavonoid Content of Lamiaceae Family Herbs

Nitu Trehan, Gaganpreet Kaur, Bhavkiranbir Kaur and Supreet Kaur

Lamiaceae family is one of the most important plant families consist of 200 general, of which 40% are aromatic compounds. Lamiaceae herbs contain a variety of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids that have anti-viral, tiinflammatory, antioxidant, anti- mutagenic and anti- cancer property. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH(1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) radical assay.Antioxidant activity was higher in Peppermint (Mentha piperita) and it was 94.3%.Flavonoid content was determined by HPLC analysis with Peppermint (Mentha piperita) showing the highest concentration of Quercetin .

Assessment of Ground Water Pollution Potential through Pollution Index Mapping – A Case Study with Peerzadiguda Village, Uppal, Hyderabad

P. Sekhar

The presence of toxic heavy metals such as chromium (VI) contaminants in aqueous streams, arising from the discharge of untreated metal containing effluents into water bodies, is one of the most important environmental problems. The present study was aimed at assessing the ground water contamination in Peerzadiguda village, Uppal, Hyderabad with reference to Chromium entering into the ground waters from industries located upstream side. Studies indicated that the levels of chromium(VI) in the ground waters are high above the standards as evident by2. 486ppm as against its standard limit of 0.05 ppm. The WQI studies and Heavy metal pollution index(HPI) studies also confirmed severe polluted condition of the ground waters as evident by the values of WQI and HPI (127.039 & 402.743 respectively).An attempt was also made to reduce the chromium levels in ground waters by using two naturally available adsorbents Iron modified calcinated brick powder(Fe-CBP) and Iron modified carbonized tamarind seeds powder(Fe-CTS). Batch adsorption studies indicated that both adsorbents have shown appreciable chromium removal efficiencies as was evident by the removal percentages of 90.46% and 89.81% with Fe-CTS and Fe-CBP respectively.

Evaluation of Ground Water Quality status with Refrence to Fluoride Pollution: A Case of Dilwarpur and Surrounding Villages, Aler, Nalgonda District,Andhra Pradesh

P. Sekhar

The Present study was aimed at assessing the extent of Fluoride pollution in ground waters of Dilwarpur village in Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh through WQI studies.. It is also aimed at studying the Fluoride removal capabilities of some natural adsorbents and their kinetics. Results of ground water analysis in the study sites have indicated that in all the sites average Fluoride concentration (7.96 ppm) was high above the standard value of 1.5ppm.Results indicated that WQI values in all the study sites are high above the 100 which makes ground water in the study sites unfit for drinking purpose which is in support with the complaints noted from the locals during site visit. Results of adsorption with Iron modified neem powder showed a maximum fluoride removal of 95.75% after 240min treatment. Results of adsorption with Iron modified moringa powder indicated a maximum fluoride removal of 97.25%. It was observed that both iron modified neem and moringa powders have shown comparatively higher removal efficiencies than their corresponding unmodified raw powders.

Influence of Accelerated Ageing on Determination of Naturally Aged Cotton Seed Viability

Bharamaraj Badiger, Shivagouda Patil and Sanjeevsingh Rajaput

An experiment was carried out using cotton seed cv. NHH-44 to investigate seed deterioration during accelerated ageing. The seeds were subjected to 40-44°C and 90-95% relative humidity for 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days for artificial ageing. Controlled ageing linearly decreased the germination and field emergence capacity. One day accelerated aged seeds are equivalent to third-fourth months of naturally aged seeds; similarly two day aged seeds will equivalent to nine months of naturally aged seeds.

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Couroupita guianensis Aubl. and their Characterization

M.S. Shekhawat, P. Anusuya, N. Kannan, M. Manokari, J. Revathi and V. Ilavarasi

We synthesized silver nanoparticles from the aqueous extracts of leaves,flower petals and fruit pulp of Couroupita guianensis Aubl. in this study. C.guianensis is a threatened medicinal tree, also known as Cannon ball tree or Nagalingam tree. This plant is used to treat number of ailments such as, cold, intestinal gas formation and stomach ache. The leaf has been found to show antioxidant activity, anthelmintic activity, immune modulator and antinociceptive activity. Fruits are edible and are occasionally eaten, but the smell of the white flesh discourages most people from trying them. Fresh leaves, flower petals and fruit pulp were used to prepare aqueous extracts. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized using silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution at room temperature. The solution color was changed from yellow to dark brown with all the three extracts. The nanoparticle suspension gave maximum UV-Vis absorbance at 415 to 435nm. The FTIR spectra of the leaf aqueous extract was determined to allow identification of possible functional groups responsible for the bioconversion of silver ions to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs).

Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Grass Pea (LathyrusSativum) Genotypes by Morphological Qualitative Traits

Belul Gixhari, and Hekuran Vrapi

The legume collection including grass pea in Albania gene bank contains more than 230 local forms and breeding lines or cultivars with known or unknown origin and the grass pea collection is a modest valuable group of legumes species for animal production. However, little is known about the extent and nature of the variability of these species. Twenty four local forms and breeding lines of grass pea’s collection, evaluating 15 qualitative traits, were used for the assessment of genetic diversity of Lathyrus sativum genotypes. The study was carried out in the Experimental field collection of Agricultural University of Tirana, during two years. The aim of the study was evaluation of the major bio-morphological traits, characterizing the grass pea genotypes, and determining patterns in Albanian populations of potential forage species of the Lathyrus sativum genotypes using PCA, correlation and cluster methods. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis identified the variances of the principal components (PC) and the proportion of the total variance each factor accounts for and range grass pea genotypes into three different cluster groups. Study analysis identifying traits with agronomic interest which account for genetic diversity and the demarcation of distinguishable morphological groups will facilitate the maintenance and agronomic evaluation of the collections.

Water Quality Management of Bhopal Lakes

Amit Dubey, Suman Malik and Avinash Bajpai

Bhopal, the capital city of Madhya Pradesh is known as the city of lakes owing to the large number of lentic water bodies inundated in its hilly landscape. The city is relatively far from any perennial lotic water body and hence is dependent on these lentic water bodies to cater its needs of water. Despite having large number of water bodies in and around it, the city of Bhopal witnesses water crisis during the drier months as most of the water bodies are not being used to their optimum. The water quality of these important sources is degrading due to various factors, which is further rendering them useless for human use. The present paper deals with the water quality management of Bhopal lakes to enable their optimum utilization.

Formulation, Sensory Evaluation and Nutrient Analysis of Products (Jellies, Chocolates and Nutri-bars) with AloeVera

Hannah Monica Joy K and Nancy Angeline Rani R

Aloe Vera has marvellous medicinal properties. Scientists have discovered over 150 nutritional ingredients in Aloe Vera and they all work together in a  synergistic way to create healing and health giving benefits. Aloe Vera is not commonly used in making food products apart from regular cosmetics and some medicines. Hence, the study was taken up to formulate food products of aloe vera. The study design was experimental in which products like jellies, chocolates and nutri-bars were formulated by adding aloevera. Sensory evaluation of the products was done by a panel of 30 members where the taste, colour, flavour, appearance, and texture of the products have been assessed and the best three products were ranked. Watermelon jelly, plain chocolate and almond nutri bar were ranked as the best three products based on their mean scores. Nutrient analysis of the products was done and has been found that vitamins and minerals have been greatly enhanced by the addition of aloe vera to the products. Through the  icrobial analysis of the products it was found that there was no growth of any kind of bacteria or fungi in the plates till the 60th day. This shows that the aloe vera products are very safe for consumption and the shelf life of the product is excellent. Hence measure should be taken to create awareness about aloe vera among people as it can be widely and easily grown in houses.

Adsorption of Cu (II) Ions From Aqueous Solution by Activated Calcite Powder :  aquilibrium, Isothermal and Kinetic Approach

T.Ravichandran, S.Arivoli and V Marimuthu

The series of batch laboratory experiment were carried out by using activated calcite powder (ACP) for the removal of copper (II) ions from aqueous solution by the adsorption process. The investigation was carried out by studying the influence of initial pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial concentration of copper. All batch experiment was carried out of constant temperature using wrist – action shaker that operated at 200 rpm. The single component equilibrium data was analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The kinetic process of copper ACP was described by applying pseudo second order rate equation, Elovich model and intra- particles diffusion. The activated calcite powder investigated in this study carries high potential for the removal of copper ions from aqueous solution. The various thermodynamic parameters like ΔGO, ΔHO, and ΔSO and were analyzed to observe the nature of adsorption.

A Study on Antioxidant and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Seaweeds from Hare Island of Tuticorin Coast

F. Dayana Lobo, S. Maria Victorial Rani

The high frequency of occurrence of degenerative diseases necessitates searching for a natural, cost effective resource enriched with antioxidant potentials. The present investigation was carried out in thirteen seaweeds abundantly  distributed in Gulf of mannar. The Study revealed that total phenolic content was found to be more in Spathoglossumasperum (3.65 mg GAEs/g) followed by radinapavonia(4.75mg GAEs/g) and Padinatetrastromatica(4.27mg GAEs/g). Higher amount of flavonoid content was found in Spathoglossumasperum,Padinapavonia and Padinatetrastromatica. Seaweeds such as Hypneamusciformis,  adinatetrastromatica, Acanthophoraspicifera, Amphiroaancepswere noted for their high proline content. Tannin content was high in Padinatetrastromatica (63.77±3.01mg CE/g) Spathoglossumasperum (50.6 ±4.34mg CE/g) and Caulerpascalpelliformis(50.20 ±3.01mg CE/g). Vitamin-C and vitamin-E content were high in Stoechospermummarginatum. Among the investigated seaweeds Stoechospermummarginatum (58.37%) showed more effective free radical scavenging activity.

An Iodine-Mediated Green Synthesis of 2, 3- Dihydroquinazolin-4(1h)-Ones under Solvent-Free Condition Using Grinding Technique

Vijaykumar B. Ningdale, Uddhav N. Chaudhar and Kabeer A. Shaikh

An eco-friendly efficient synthesis of 2, 3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-ones is described through the condensation of 2-aminobenzamide with various types of aromatic aldehydes obtained by grinding them in the presence of catalytic amount of molecular iodine in a mortar in a single step. The present method avoids use of organic solvents at any stage of reaction.

Antioxidative Effects of Certain Plant Extracts In In Vivo Systems

Durgesh Sharma1 and Sunil Dutt Shukla* 2

Present study studies stress regimen for specific period every day upto 30 days and use of plant extracts in experimental animals. Antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide dismutase, Catalse, and Glutathione peroxidase were measured along with Reduced Glutathione and Malondialdehyde and Ascorbic acid. Our results demonstrated that Catalase, Superoxide Dismutase and Glutathione peroxidase level decreased significantly in stress group as compared to control group. In drug treated group a significant recovery was observed. Similarly, Reduced Glutathione also decreased significantly. A significant recovery of these was observed after treatment with plant extracts. Study of lipid peroxidation demonstrated a significant increase in Malondialdehyde level after stress exposure as compared to control. This increase was significantly reduced after treatment with Withania Somnifera, Centella Asiatica and Asparagus racemosus extracts.

Neuroprotection: It’s Phytoremediation (Theoretical Perspective)

Durgesh Sharma1and Sunil Dutt Shukla* 2

Oxygen radicals are continuously formed in body of all living organisms, with deleterious effects that lead to cell injury and death. Production of oxidative species, occurs under physiological conditions at a controlled rate, but it is dramatically increased in conditions of oxidative stress. Cell damage caused by free radicals appears to be major contributor in aging, degenerative diseases of aging such as brain dysfunctions, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, compromised immune system etc. Free radicals have been also implicated in pathogenesis of diseases related to Central nervous system characterized by neuron degeneration or neuron loss. Fortunately, free radical formation can be controlled naturally by various beneficial compounds known as antioxidants. A wide range of antioxidants both natural and synthetic have been discussed in literature. In this review, oxidative stress, various antioxidants and their protective role has been discussed in view of neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS.