Research Paper in Green Chemistry

Physico-Chemical & Bacteriological Assessment of Groundwater Supply at Different Sites of Bhopal City

Jyoti Jotwani, Bharti Jain and Suman Malik

The city of Bhopal depends on its lentic water sources among the surface water sources for water supply. However a significant percentage of the population depends on groundwater sources of the city. The present investigation is aimed at assessment of quality of groundwater being used by the residents of the city of Bhopal for potable purposes. During the present investigation we have observed,turbidity of the water samples ranged from 0 to 8 NTU, Conductivity values fell within the WHO, (2006). The pH values in the study area ranged from 7.2 to 8.9.we have recorded the total hardness values between 128 to 448 mg/L. Calcium content falls above the standards of 75 mg/L, while magnesium content in all the groundwater samples is within desirable range. Alkaline concentration recorded from the study area for groundwater fell within the 168 mg/L to 412 mg/L range and phosphate values in groundwater varied between 0.08 mg/L to 1.12 mg/L. Nitrate was present in all ground water samples and the level ranged from 5.7 mg/l to 19.6 mg/l. The sulphate concentration of groundwater varied between 11.2 mg/L and 193.6 mg/L. In groundwater samples however, total coliform was found at G-1, G-2, G-5, G-8, G-10,G-13 and G-15. Consumption of such water may result in immediate health implications

GC-MS Analysis of the ethanol extract of Oxalis corniculata L. (Oxalidaceae)

K. Aruna, P. Devi Raja Rajeswari , M. Ramkumar,K. Prabu, R. Chidambaram & S. Raja Sankar

A medicinal herb can be viewed as a synthetic laboratory as it produces and contains a number of chemical compounds.Gas Chromatography (GC) and Mass Spectroscopy (MS) can be used to study Traditional Medicines and characterize the compound of interest. Oxalis corniculata L. (Oxalidaceae) is herb distributed in hill slopes of southern peninsular India. This plant reported for Hypoglycemic,antihypertensive, chronotropic effect, uterine relaxant, antipsychotic, CNS-stimulant,smooth muscle relaxant. Linolenic acid, Palmitic acid, Vitamin E acetate and other constituents reported in whole plant of Oxalis corniculata, when analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Over 22 compounds were identified. 9, 12, 15-Octadecatrienoic acid (Z, Z, Z) and n-Hexadecanoic acid were the most abundant of fatty acid identified in the fatty acid fraction.

Green Chemistry: Conventional and Microwave Induced Synthesis of Various 2-Azetidinone Derivatives and Their Antimicrobial, Antitubercular Screening

Poonam Kohli, S.D. Srivastava and S.K. Srivastava

A novel series of N-[(4-aryl-3-chloro-2-oxo-azetidineimino)-propyl]-2-chlorophenothiazine derivatives (4a-j) were synthesized from N-[(arylidene hydrazino)- propyl]-2-chlorophenothiazine (3a-j). The newly synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial, antifungal and anti-tubercular activities. Results revealed that, compounds (4b), (4c), (4f) and (4g) showed excellent antimicrobial and antitubercular activity against variety of bacterial and fungal strains. All synthesized compounds were characterized using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FAB-mass and elemental analysis.

Development and validation of analytical method for estimation of Enalapril maleate in oral solution

Rachana DP, Jigisha Patel, Mayank Bapna

A simple, fast, accurate and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the estimation of Enalapril maleate in oral solution containing Sodium benzoate as excipient. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Zorbax Eclipse Plus C8 (250 x 4.6) mm; 5μm column with an isocratic mixture of phosphate buffer (2.1pH): acetonitrile (75:25) v/v. The mobile phase was set at a flow rate of 1.3 ml/min with injection volume 20 μl,wavelength of detection 215 nm and column temperature 60 ºC. The retention times for Enalapril maleate, and Sodium benzoate were found to be 6.836±0.1 min, and 5.876 ± 0.1 min, respectively. The linearity was obtained in the range of 40-400 μg/mL and 80 -800 μg/mL with correlation coefficient 0.998 and 0.999 for Enalapril maleate and Sodium benzoate, respectively. The proposed methods was validated as per ICH guidelines and successfully applied for the determination of investigated drugs in oral solution.

Physico-Chemical Characterization of Starches from Sword Bean, Pigeon Pea,Rice and Cassava: A Comparative Study

A.O. Ashogbon

Sword bean starch (SBS) and pigeon pea starch (PPS) were isolated and their gross chemical composition and functional characteristics were determined, and compared with rice starch (RS) and cassava starch (CS). The starch yield of the legume starches (23.5 and 33.70%) was lower than that of RS (60.80%). Legume starches were of intermediate purity and swelling power, but had the highest solubility, bulk density, and pH and the lowest dispersibility. The intermediate peak, breakdown and higher setback viscosities of the legume starches compared to the RS and CS are of industrial significance. The gelatinization parameters of the starches were significantly different.

Sorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic studies of cationic dye from aqueous solution using herbal adsorbent developed from rhizome of Acorus Calamus

D.Kalaiselvi, V.Sangeetha, A.Basker, D.Saravanan

Herbal medicines have been gaining unique popularity in the world in recent years. This study is intended to evaluate the potential of the herb (Acorus calamus) as an adsorbent for the removal of CV from aqueous solution. The effect of pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, time and temperature on adsorption was studied. The equilibrium sorption data were fitted into Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin–Radushkevich (DRK) isotherm and Harkins- Jura (H-J) isotherms. Of the four adsorption isotherm, Langmuir isotherm model exhibited fits better to the adsorption data than the Freundlich model. The maximum monolayer coverage (Qo) from Langmuir isotherm model was determined to be 54.55 mg/g, the separation factor indicating a favourable sorption experiment is 0.009. Also from Freundlich isotherm model, the sorption intensity (n) which indicates favourable sorption and the correlation value are 2.21 and 0.90 respectively. The heat of sorption process was estimated from Temkin Isotherm model to be 237.03J/mol and the mean free energy was estimated from D-R isotherm model to be 35.46 KJ/mol which clearly proved that the adsorption experiment followed a chemical process. To investigate the mechanism of crystal violet (CV) dye adsorption, characteristic adsorption constants were determined using pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and intraparticle diffusion and compared. Kinetic assessment suggests that the adsorption process followed second order model. Further the diffusion models show that intraparticle diffusion is not the sole rate-limiting step. Thermodynamics showed that the adsorption of CV on biosorbents was favourable and spontaneous, endothermic physical adsorption and increased disorder and randomness at the solid- solution interface of CV with biosorbents.

Seasonal Distribution of Fishes in Relation to Hydrobiological Parameters of Western Narmada River

Triguna Pathak, K. Borana and T. Zafar

During the study period, 58 fish species have been identified belonging to 8 genera, 16 families and 6 orders during Nav., 2011 to Oct.,2012 from theestern Narmada River of Madhya Pradesh. Physico chemical properties of natural waters are important environmental factor, the variation of which, among other causes are linked with the chemical changes, species composition and life processes of animal communities inhabiting them.

Eco-Toxicological Status of Upper Lake of Bhopal (MP) in relation to its Conservation and Management

Asita Singh, S.C. Pandey and K. Borana

Upper Lake is a freshwater lake, which is the major source of drinking water in the city of Bhopal, the capital city of M.P., the central province of India, but due to anthropogenic activities this lake is being polluted. During the investigation physicochemical parameters and heavy metals were analyzed to determine the water quality of Upper Lake monthly in the year 2011.

Planktonic Composition and its relation to Water Quality Status of Upper Lake of Bhopal (MP)

Asita Singh, S.C. Pandey and K. Borana

During the present investigation physic chemical and biological parameters were analyzed to determine the water quality of Upper Lake monthly in the year 2011.Water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, COD and BOD have been found to vary between 27.8°C to 35°C, 6.04 to 7.84, 2.0 mg/l to 8.8 mg/l, 486 mg/l to 2648 mg/l., 282 mg/l to 488 and 124 mg/l to 274 mg/l., respectively. During present study Phytoplankton ranged from 15 sp to 23 sp and Zooplankton ranged from 6 sp to 11sp.

Web Offset Printing Technology with Alcohol Free Fountain Solution

Rossitza Sardjeva

Offset printing, also named “wet” offset, uses dampening solution in order to keep non-printing elements as a hydrophilic on the surface of offset printing plate. So fountain solution is a part of its process. Generally it is composed by water and around of 8-10 % isopropyl alcohol as perfect wetting agent. However, there are inherent issues with this process, such as negative environmental impact, health hazardous, complex press operations and waste water and chemical regulations. Isopropyl alcohol used in water solution in offset printing has negative influence as: part of it vaporizes to form volatile organic compounds that pollute the working environment, also toxic and flammable. Measured by volume, IPA is the most significant air pollutant in the offset printing companies. In the common ecology savings conditions there are alternative ways to reduce or even fully IPA-free printing, lowering costs and risks for health and environment safety.In web offset printing are several possibilities to apply alcohol free dampening solution. In this study for the CSWO (Cold Set Web Offset) printing it was applied fully alcohol free with specially developed additive, compatible to individual tap water properties. In addition here was used ceramic filtration system in order to prevent fast contamination and also permit longer intervals between changing the fountain solution, and keeps the fountain solution cleaned during the long period. So in this way we achieved to maintain stable printing process without any problems.Alcohol free “wet” offset technology is important not only for the sake of printers but for a stronger, more profitable business. The optimization of automatic offset printing system for the environmentally friendly dampening components via free alcohol and filtration procedures is a further milestone of the classical offset technology environmental approach.

Reduction of chromium in the vicinity of Industrial area,Srikakulam Dt. (A.P.)

A.V.L.N.S.H.Hariharan, J.V.S.K.V.Kalyani and T.Siva Rao

Analysis of heavy metals – (iron, copper, chromium, lead and zinc) in effluent samples collected in the vicinity of M/s. Samkerg pistons & Rings Ltd., Srikakulam Dt.) has been carried out for a period of two months during January &February (2014) in Srikakukam Dt.(A.P.). The concentration of these metals except chromium were found well within the limits as per the standards. The results obtained in the study were compared by carrying out the same procedure with synthetic samples. Attempts were made to reduce contamination due to chromium using analytical techniques.

A Review on Role of Green Chemistry for Sustainable Development in India

B. K. Magare and B. K. Magar

The chemistry has played a significant role to enhance the living standard of human beings. The Industrial houses have developed the molecules which have diverse use in medical, agrochemical, petrochemical, leather and polymer industries.The cost effective trends in industries has released number of chemicals and materials which are not environment friendly. The concept of Green Chemistry has been moving towards the sustainable development by promoting the ecofriendly new synthesis and design of methods and materials. It has to play vital role by using human and natural resources for sustainable development in India.

Growth Performance of Major Horticultural Crops and Vegetables in India

Sameer Lokapur and Ravi Gurikar

Major horticultural crops and Vegetables are rich and comparatively cheaper sources of vitamins. India stands as the largest producer of vegetables in the world after China; it contributes over 13percent to the world’s vegetable production. The study aimed to analyze the growth performance of major horticultural crops and vegetables in respect of area production and productivity in India which has a high concentration of area under vegetables and recognized as major horticultural crops and vegetable market in the India. The secondary data on area, production and productivity of major vegetables for analysed for CGR pertained to the period from 2001-02 to 2012-13. It was observed that annual growth rates in area and production of horticultural crops in India were 2.90 percent, 6.12 percent and Productivity 3.05 percent per cent respectively. It was observed that annual growth rates in area and production of vegetables in India whereas registered annual growth rate of 4.17 percent per anum production is 6.40 percent and Productivity 2.17 percent in 1%level of significant. Thus it could be inferred from the results that there exists a scope for production of vegetables in India and hence could be explored further by strengthening vegetable marketing approaches.

Paracetamol: Friend or Foe – A Discussion

S. Marmat and H.S. Rathore

This review deals with the use-overuse-overdoses, toxicities and related aspects of a common pain killer (antipyretic-anti-inflammatory) drug paracetamol (acetaminophen).

Production, Export and Import of Cotton from India - An Overview

P.B.Gamanagatti, Sameer Lokapur and Ravi Gurikar

Major Cotton is a white fibrous agricultural product that has a wide variety of uses, from textile production, to creating paper, to producing oil and food products.Cotton is grown all around the globe, and is traded internationally as well – the international trade in cotton is led by the United States and the African nations, and totals more than $12 billion annually. In India cotton having area115.53 lakh in ha, production 375.0 lakh bales of 170kgs and productivity is 552 kgs per ha. The study aimed to analyze the growth performance of cotton crops in respect of area production and productivity in India which has a high concentration of area under cotton and recognized as market in the India. The secondary data on area, production and productivity of cotton for analysed for CGR pertained to the period from2003-04 to 2012-13. It was observed that annual growth rates in area and production of cotton in India were 4.77 percent, 6.19 percent and Productivity 1.13 percent per cent respectively. And Cotton in India export was observed that annual growth rates from period from2002-03 to 2011-12 is 51.33 percent per annum .It was significant at 1% level. Cotton import is from period of from2002-03 to 2011-12 is negative (-7044) Thus It could be inferred from the results that there exists a scope for production of cotton in India and hence could be explored further by strengthening cotton marketing approaches.

Kinetics and Isotherm Studies of Pentachlorophenol Sorption onto Modified and Unmodified Groundnut Shell.

Isaac A. Ololade

An adsorbent of modified (MGS) and unmodified (UGS) groundnut shell was prepared to adsorb pentachlorophenol (PCP). The adsorption mechanism was studied in terms of equilibrium and kinetics at different pH and concentrations. Empirical Freundlich and Linear isotherm models effectively described the adsorption process. The experimental data were best described by Pseudo-second order kinetics with R2 > 0.9997,although, intra-particle diffusion played significant role in PCP mass transfer. Greater amount of PCP are favourably adsorbed at lower pH value. It is noted that MGS adsorbs better than UGS, consequently could be employed as low cost alternative adsorbent to commercial activated carbon in wastewater treatment for removal of PCP, particularly at low pH condition.

A Study of Acalypha Indica Extract as a Novel Green Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in Aqueous Medium

J.ThomasPaulraj, A.Sahaya Raja, J.Sathiyabama, V.Prathipa

The corrosion and inhibition behaviors of carbon steel in the presence of Acalypha indica extract and ZnSO4 have been studied using gravimetric method and electrochemical techniques. Results obtained by various techniques are close to each other and maximum Inhibition efficiency 92% is acknowledged at the inhibitor concentration of 10ml of Acalypha indica extract and 5ppm Zn2+. Synergistic parameters suggest that a synergistic effect exists between Acalypha indica extract and Zn2+.Statistical study of “F” test revealed that the synergistic effect existing between Acalypha indica extract and Zn2+ .The effective synergistic formulation with 150 ppm of SDS has 98% corrosion inhibition efficiency and 100% biocidal efficiency .Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study confirmed that the inhibition of corrosion of carbon steel is through adsorption of the extract molecule on the surface of the metal. Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays(EDAX) shows that in the presence of Acalypha indica extract the suppression of Fe peaks ,additional line of Zn signal and enhancement in ‘C’ and ‘O’ signal are observed. These data show that metal surface is covered by adsorbed layer of extract molecule that protects carbon steel against corrosion