Research Paper in Green Chemistry

Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Pigeon Pea Starch and Rice Starch Blends


Physicochemical and functional properties of pigeon pea starch (PPS), rice starch (RS) and their blends in different proportion  70PPS/30RS, 50PPS/50RS and 30PPS/70RS) (%, w/w) were evaluated. The apparent amylose (AAM) contents of the blends were higher than those of PPS (28.40%) and RS (26.04%). Swelling power and water solubility index of the blends were lower than that of the control starches. The pH, dispersibility and pasting parameters (with the exception of peak time and pasting temperature) of the starch blends were non-additive of their individual components. The low breakdown (92.33 RVU) and setback (118.08 RVU) viscosities of the 30PPS/70RS blend and high peak viscosity (429.42 RVU) of the 50PPS/50RS blend were significant in the food industry. The under-utilized PPS could be made more important industrially by substituting part of it into the more expensive RS.

Eco-friendly cleaning of Biofouling in Reverse Osmosis Membrane Evaluated Using Medicinal plants screening

Malini .M, Sivakavinesan., Ponnanikajamideen .M, Karthiga. P, Abirami .G, Alagumuthu. and Annadurai.G

Reverse Osmosis is an important membrane separation process in waste water reuse and purification of Sea/brackish water systems due to biofouling is a major concern. The main object of this study was to enumerate the bacterial load which forms the biofilm in the reverse osmosis membrane, thus causing biofouling and the screening of the medicinal plants for their activity and thus identified their antifouling properties. In this research we used three kind of the medicinal plants Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum and Phyllanthus niruri are widely used in the folklore to treat various kinds of diseases. The plant extract prepare with Ethyl acetate, Aqueous and Methanol with three medicinal plants (Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum and Phyllanthus niruri). The synergistic activity was varied using Kirby-Bauer method. The medicinal plant extract of Phyllanthus niruri prepared with methanol showed a maximum synergistic antifouled activity against five fouling pathogens search as gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Phyllanthus niruri showed maximum inhibitory activity against Staphyloccocus sp (27mm). This is followed by Klebsiella sp (24mm), Pseudomonas sp (22mm) and E.coli (21mm) .The least activity was observed in Basillus sp (20mm). These antifouled activities of Phyllanthus niruri may be due to their Phytochemical contents. Further investigation of active antifouling from Phyllanthus niruri will leads to the development of economically and ecofriendly antifouling properties.

Antimicrobial study of analogues prepared under microwave assistance of active ingredient isolated from Buteamonosperma plant and their growth promoting impact on some flowering plants

M. O. Malpani, P. R. Rajput

Buteamonospermais one of the medicinally potential plants found in Melghat region which is frequently used for the eradication of skin diseases. In the present study we have undertaken microwave assisted synthesis the analogues of active ingredient isolated from leaves of Buteamonospermaplant extract and screened for their antibacterial activity against pathogens responsible for skin diseases viz. Streptococcus pyogenes, Nocardiacalcarea, Trichosporoncutaneum,Rhodotorularubra. The synthesized compounds were screened for their growth promoting impacts on some flowering plants viz. Papaverrhoeas, Gladiola tristis,Dianthus chinensis, Candy tuft, Gaillardia, Calendula officinalise.

Essential Oil Constituents from two types of Psidium guajava Leaves from Bangladesh

Katrun Nada, Jasim Uddin Chowdhury, Md Nurul Huda Bhuiyan and Matiur Rahim

Essential oils from leaves of deshi and kazi variety of Psidium guajava from Bangladesh were analyzed by GC-MS. The major components in deshi variety were cycloheptane,4-methylene-1-methyl-2-(2-methyl-1-1-propen-1-yl)-1-vinyl (51%), alloaromadendrene oxide (14.5%), bicyclo [5.2.0] nonane, 2-methylene- 4,8,8- trimethyl-4-vinyl (12.1%), trans-nerolidol (6.9%) and in kazi variety were trans-nerolidol (22.1%), α-pinene (14.8%), caryophyllene (12.5%), δ-cadinol (10.4%), 1,4,7-cycloundecatriene,1,5,9,9-tetramethyl (9.5%), globulol( 8.3%).

Microwave Assisted Synthesis of N-(4-(substituted benzylide ne) - 5-oxo-2-phenyl- 4, 5-dihydroimidazol -1-yl)benzo [b] thiophene-2-carboxamide and their Antimicrobial Study

Kalmendra Singh Sisodiya and V. K. Sharma

Microwave (MW) irradiation has gained popularity in the past decade as a powerful tool for rapid and efficient synthesis of a variety of compounds because of selective absorption of microwave energy by polar molecules. The title compounds have been synthesized by the condensation reaction of 4-arylidene-2-phenyloxazol- 5(4H)-one and benzo[b]thiophene-2-carbohydrazide. We have used Microwave irradiation method for synthesis of N-(4-(substituted benzylidene) - 5-oxo-2-phenyl-4, 5 dihydroimidazol -1-yl) benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamide. The structure of all the compounds was confirmed by elemental analysis and spectral analysis (1HNMR, IR and Mass) and Compounds 2b, 2g, 2h and 2i show significant activity at 200 μg/mL concentration against the bacteria E. coli and P. aeruginosa. An examination of the data reveal that almost all the compounds showed mild to moderate antibacterial activity and It was observed that the synthesized compound 2b showed 12.5 μg/mL MBC for bacteria E. coli and P. aeruginosa while compounds 2c and 2e, showed 12.5 μg/mL MBC for bacteria, S aureus and B. Subtilis. All the synthesizedCompounds have given 25-50 μg/mL MBC for all the bacterial strains.

Kinetics and Mechanism of Phosphotungustic Acid Catalyzed Oxidation of o-chloroBenzyl Alcohol by N-Chlorosaccharin in Acetic Acid-Water Medium

O.P. Gupta, Manoj Kumar Solanki, Santosh Kumar Singh and H.D. Gupta

Kinetic investigations in Keggin-type phosphotungstic acid, which is ecofriendlyand green catalyst, catalyzed oxidation of o-chloro benzyl alcohol by Nchlorosaccharin,(NCSA) in aqueous acetic acid, have been studied. Oxidation kinetics of  benzyl alcohol by N-chlorosaccharin in presence of Phosphotungstic acid (PTA) shows a first order dependence on NCSA and fractional order on o-chloro benzyl alcohol and PTA. The variation of [H+] and [saccharin] (reaction product) have insignificant effect on reaction rate. Activation parameters for the reaction have been evaluated from Arrhenius plot by studying the reaction at different temperature. The rate law has been derived based on obtained kinetics data and a plausible mechanism has been proposed.

Equilibrium and Response Surface Methodology Studies for Adsorption of Rhodamine B by Chitosan Nanoparticle

M.Sivakavinesan,M.Malini,G.Alagumuthu, G.Annadurai

The aim of this research work is to study the dyestuff binding capacity of nano adsorbent particles produced from Chitosan (Prawn shells). Adsorption of industrially important dye namely Rhodamine B from aqueous media using chitosan nanoparticles has been investigated. The effect of sorbent dosages, pH, temperature and adsorption at different time intervals on the adsorption behavior of dye has been studied. The adsorption equilibrium data were analyzed by using various adsorption isotherm models and the results have shown that adsorption behavior of the dye could be described reasonably well by Langmuir and Freundlich models. The characteristic parameters for each isotherm have been determined. The monolayer adsorption capacity was determined to be 4.361 to 1.98 mg/g. These results indicate that chitosan nanoparticle is a suitable adsorbent material for adsorption of Rhodamine B dye from aqueous solutions. From the result of isotherm and kinetics studies the adsorption rate achieved at optimum pH-5.5, temperature-45 ºC, time duration-24 h and the amount of adsorbed Rhodamine dye is 16.54 mg/g. The study suggests that this biosorbent chitosan nano-particle could be developed into a viable and cost-effective technology for dyestuff removal from industrial wastewater.

Microwave Accelerated Solvent Free Synthesis of Some Chalcones and Their Novel 2-Pyrazoline and Isoxazoline Derivatives as Potential Antimicrobial Agents

Bhupendra Kumar Sharma, A.Wasi and Vijay Kumar Dwivedi

Microwave assisted synthesis of chalcones under solvent-free conditions resulted in a “green-chemistry” procedure for thepreparation of 2-pyrazolines and isoxazoline derivatives in very good yields. Acetone was reacted with appropriately substitutedbenzaldehydes in the presence of basic alumina to furnish substituted chalcones (1, 2). These chalcones were further treated with phenyl hydrazine, 2, 4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine, semicarbazide and thiosemicarbazide to afford substituted 3, 5-arylated-2-pyrazoline derivatives (1a-1d and 2a-2d). Reaction of these chalcones with hydroxylamine hydrochloride yielded 3, 5-arylated isoxazoline derivatives (1e and 2e). The structures of synthesized compounds have been confirmed by suitable spectroscopic techniques such as IR and 1H NMR and analytical data. All the compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and for antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. The compounds exhibited moderate to excellent antibacterial and antifungal activities.

Green Chemistry and New Innovative Solutions to Water Pollution-A Review

L.Nageswara Rao

To prevent the intensity of water pollution, effective safety measures should be employed that prevent point-source and nonpoint-source pollution. Green chemistry solutions should be employed, where possible. An effective way to deal with the water pollution problem is to use the minimum harmful ways to exclude contaminants. Chromatography methods and separation chemistry principles offer a variety of motivating methods to attain these goals. Interesting examples of remediation have been provided to assistance correct contamination of groundwater, which affects nearly hundred million people worldwide. A variability of novelmethods has been included for prevention and remediation of water pollution that occasion radical reaction and the utilization of advanced advanced nano-based techniques.

Compound growth rate in area production and productivity of Horticultural crops and their instability in India

Kadli Vinayaka, Sameer lokapur, Ravi Gurikar and Roopa Hosali

The study was conducted to assess the growth and instability in area, production and productivity. Compound growth rate and instability index were employed to analyze the time series data for 11 years collected from national horticultural board government of India of India The result showed that the growth rates and instability in area, production and productivity of horticultural crops. In India Growth rate of horticultural crops productivity in India was positive (3.71 %) and was associated with instability index of less (0.66%). In the same period a positive growth rate of area was observed (1.29%) with instability index of high.(15.72), while a positive growth rate of production (8.12 %) with instability index of 10.38 per cent was observed for production. The average of area, production andproductivity of Horticultural crops during this period were 17.95 (Million hectares),179.55 (Million Tonnes) and 9.42 (Million /ha) per hectare). High cost of establishment and lack of capital were the major production constraints. Absence of support price in the case of glut, absence of regulated markets and fluctuations in market prices were major marketing constraints while non-availability of quality testing laboratories and lack of adequate cold storage facilities were the major area and productivity constraints in India but still India is leading country in the horticultural crops especially vegetables .

Microwave Synthesis of 1 (2- Hydroxy Phenyl ) 3( 3-Furyl-2-yl-1- Phenyl -1H-Pyrazol- 4 -yl) 2-Propen-1-ones

S. B. Pawar

In the last few years there has been growing interest in the use of microwave heating in organic synthesis. Virtually all types of thermally driven chemical reactions can be accelerated by microwave .The use of such non-conventional reaction condition reveals several advantages like a short reaction time, increasing yield, cleaner reaction, selectivity inreaction and ease of reaction work-up as compared to conventional heating. This microwaveassisted synthesis becomes a part of green chemistry. By considering above concept we have synthesized a novel 1 ( 2- Hydroxy Phenyl ) 3( 3-Furyl-2-yl-1- Phenyl -1H-Pyrazol- 4 -yl)2-Propen-1-ones by microwave irradiation of ortho hydroxyl acetophenone with 1-phenyl,3-furyl-1H-pyrazol-4 carboxaldehyde. The prepared compounds are characterized by IR and NMR.

Variability in area and yield of banana in Karnataka:an overview

Roopa Hosali, Kadli Vinayaka, Sameer Lokapur and Ravi Gurikar

Banana is grown in all tropical regions of world and play a key role in the economies of many developing countries. Banana (Musa sp.) is the 2nd most important fruit crop in India next to mango. Banana is the world’s 4th most important food crop after rice, wheat and maize. As a staple fruit, Banana contribute to the food security of millions of farmers in the world. Banana provide income and employment to large number of rural people. The origin of Bananas is placed to Southeast Asia, in the jungles of Malaysia, Indonesia or Philippines. The major Banana producing belts Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim, Bihar, West Bengal. Maharashtra (Jalgaon,Ahmednagar, Dhule, Nanded, Parbhani), Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh. Orissa, Andhra Pradesh (East Godavari, West Godavari), Kurnool, Cuddapah,Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Banana is a rich source of carbohydrate and vitamins particularly vitamin B. It is also a good source of potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium.Maharashtra was a major state contributing more than half of the country’s productivity ( 62.97 %) followed by Gujarat (54.54%). The major Banana producing district of Karnataka was stand at fifth place in area (58.13%) in case of production of Banana concerned Karnataka stands 4th place of about (1441.07 tonnes). The growth rates and instability in area, production and productivity of Banana. In Karnataka growth rate of Banana crops productivity was positive (1.32%) was associated with high instability index of 70.33 per cent. In the same period a positive growth rate of area was observed (4.82%) with instability index of 10.50 per cent,while a positive growth rate of production (6.21 %) with instability index of 28.13 per cent was observed for production by using exponential method and CGR method employed for analyzing growth rate and instability index/variation.

The Effects of Salicyclic Acid on Quality and Shelf Life of Banana (Musa spp.)

Tolossa Duguma, Meseret C.Egigu and Manikandan Muthuswamy

Worldwide, postharvest losses of fruits and vegetables range from 25 to 40% and this loss is due to poor packaging, storage and transportation facilities. Thisexperiment aimed at evaluating the efficiency of postharvest treatments to improve the storage of banana fruits by using salicylic acid (SA). Mature green banana fruits were treated by immersion in 2, 4 and 6mM of SA for 15 minutes. The control fruits were immersed in distilled water the same way. After immersion, all fruits were air-dried for 30 minutes. Then, fruits were stored in the lab at about 13±2°C temperature for 35 days and evaluated for different quality parameters over six storage periods (0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days). Apart from fruit peel color, all measured quality parameters used to indicate ripening stages supported that SA can delay banana fruit ripening and hence improves its shelf life. Therefore, SA can be used to prolong shelf life of banana fruits and help minimize postharvest loss before reaching consumers. However, further study must be conducted on the effect of banana fruit treated with SA on the health and preference of consumers.

Thermogravimetric Analysis of Complexes Derived from Copper (II) Neem Soap (Azadirachta indica) and Copper (II) Pongamia Soap (Pongamia pinnata)

R. Sharma, L.C. Heda, A. Joram and D. Das

The complexes have been synthesized from Copper (II) soaps of Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) oils, with ligand containing nitrogen and sulphur atoms like 2-amino-6-methyl Benzothiazole, (greenish brown in colour) in order to study TGA and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, NMR andbESR spectroscopy. The stoichiometry of the complexes have been observed to be 1:1 (metal: ligand). These complexes have been thermally analyzed using TGA techniques to determine their energy of activation. These complexes show three step thermal degradation corresponding to fatty acid components of the non-edible oils. Various equations like Coats-Redfern (CR), Horowitz-Metzger (HM) and Broido equations (BE) were applied to evaluate the energy of activation. The values of energy of activation are observed to be in the following order for both Copper Neem Benzothiazole (CNB) and Copper Pongamia Benzothiazole (CPB) complexes:CPB> CNB; CPB is observed to be more stable than CNB due to its higher activation energy.

Variability in Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC)Stapf.) Genotypes for Agronomic and Chemical Characters in Ethiopia

Beemnet Mengesha Kassahun, Desta Fikadu Egeta, Wondu Bekele Yosef, Tewodros Lulsseged

An experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating the performance of four lemongrass genotypes for agronomic and chemical traits under different location of Ethiopia during 2012 and 2013. The genotypes were arranged inRandomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. Data on number of tillers/plant, number of leaves/plant, fresh herbage biomass/plant, fresh herbage yield, essential oil (EO) content, EO yield were recorded and analyzed. Mean squares from the combined ANOVA reveled a highly significant variation (P < 0.01) among the genotypes for all the traits considered in this study. Location had a significant influence (P < 0.01) on the number of tillers/plant, fresh herbage biomass/plant, fresh herbage yield, EO content and EO yield. The respective tiller number/plant and number of leaves/plant of the tested varieties ranged from 46 to 73 and 5 to 6. The leaf yield/plant and leaf yield/ha ranged from 1.80 to 2.66 kg and 55.19 to 85.68 t,respectively. The essential oil content and essential oil yield of the tested genotypes varied form 0.40-0.50% and 225.49-342.44 kg/ha/year. Generally, the tested genotypes of lemongrass demonstrated a significant variation among themselves, over the testing locations and years in agronomic and chemical characters. Of the tested genotypes, WG-Lomisar-Java, Lomisar-EAS and WG-Lomisar-UA demonstrated significantly higher values of essential oil yield and the values obtained for the different characters in different agro ecologies of Ethiopia are comparable to the different reports. Hence, it is possible to cultivate WG-Lomisar-Java, Lomisar-EAS and WG-Lomisar-UA lemongrass genotypesin Ethiopia for the production of EO and herbage biomass.

Decoloration of Clarified Banana Juice using Powdered Activated Charcoal

S.A. Wattamwar, D.C.Joshi, D.N.Kulkarni, Athawale G.H.

Banana juice is quite cheaper and could be made available throughout the year.Fruit juices such as strawberry and other exotic juices are in great demand but costly. The fruit industry is interested in blending the available low-cost juices with those having high cost. The main limitation of blending is the undesirable change in color and flavor of the final product. Decolored and deflavored low-cost juices such as banana juice are in great demand for blending purpose. Banana juice when blended with other fruit juices imparts its undesirable color and flavor. Hence there is need to develop the decoloring and deflavoring system for banana juice. The work on decoloration of clarified banana juice was considered essential for its commercial exploitation. Different conditions of adsorption along with variable dosages of adsorbent were attempted to evaluate their influence on the degree of decoloration on other bio-chemical quality parameters of the treated banana juice. It was found that optimized values of the decoloration variables within the range of the parameters studied were; powdered activated charcoal with 9.0% concentration, adsorption temperature 60 °C for 60 min.

Production of Biogas from Parthenium hysterophorus Co-Digestion with Poultry Manure

Samuel Tadesse, Meseret C. Egigu and Manikandan Muthuswamy

Biogas, a clean and renewable form of energy, could very well substitutefor conventional sources of energy. This study investigates production of biogas from Parthenium hysterophorus (PH) in sole or co-digested with poultry manure (PM) under mesophilic conditions (38ºC) using batch digester. In all the treatments, total solid,volatile solid, organic carbon, moisture content and pH were measured before and after anaerobic digestion (AD). The daily biogas production was subsequently measured by water displacement method for 35 days. Assessment of cumulative biogas production revealed that substrate in a mix ratio of 75% PH and 25% PM yielded the highest gas production, suggesting this mix ratio of the two substrates is an optimal mix to yield better biogas production. Overall, results indicate that the biogas yield and volatile solid and total solid reduction can be significantly enhanced when PH and PW are co-digested.

A Brief Review on Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water in Malpura Tehsil (Tonk, Rajasthan, India),Bassi Tehsil (Jaipur, Rajasthan, India) and Vicinity Areas of Dausa District (Rajasthan, India).

Rajni Agarwal

Ground water is a major source of drinking water in Rajasthan. There are so many parameters, which influences the quality of ground water. Fluoride is one of the critical chemical parameter in drinking water. Fluoride above maximum permissible limit as per WHO (1983) 1.5 ppm in drinking water causes dental fluorosis as well as skeletal fluorosis. A brief review on fluoride concentration in drinking water in Malpura Tehsil, Bassi Tehsil and vicinity areas of Dausa District, Rajasthan, India was carried out. It was found that the higher concentration of fluoride (i.e.14.7 mgs/lt) was observed in Bairwa Mohalla, Hingotia village in vicinity areas of Dausa district. 12.5mgs/lt fluoride in village Hanumanpura in Bassi Tehsil and 11.30 mgs/lt fluoride in Dudu road, Malpura Tehsil. The main factor to rise of fluoride concentration in ground water is the presence of fluoride rich salt system in these areas. Dental and skeletal fluorosis in children as well as adults were observed in these regions, which shows the consequences of excess fluoride concentration in drinking water. This paper reviews the quality of drinking water in Malpura, Bassi Tehsil and vicinity areas of Dausa district with special reference to fluoride.