Research Paper in Green Chemistry

Isolation and Structural Elucidation of a Bioactive Compound from Ficus racemosa leaves Ethanolic Extract">

Rajesh Bakoriya, Tessy Thomas and Kapil K. Soni

Present study describes isolation of extract from the leaves of a plant Ficus racemosa (Linn.). During the study, fresh leaves after shade drying was used for the isolation of extract using soxhlet apparatus and percentage yield was obtained (3.50% in ethanol). Then, preliminary phyto-chemical screening of the extract was done and certain secondary metabolites viz. alkaloids, glycosides, tannin, flavonoid, terpenoid and phytosterol were confirmed in the Ficus racemosa extract. Then, thin layer and column chromatography of the extract was done and Rf value 0.12 and 0.84 were calculated and obtained fractions (FR-1 to FR-5) were tested on Wistar albino rats for wound healing activities. Active fraction of extract were sent to SAIF, CDRI Lucknow for spectral analysis viz. IR, UV, HNMR1, CNMR2 and Mass for the detection/confirmation of Bio-active compound present in the fraction and finally Stigmasterol was elucidated">">

Chemical characteristicsof public drinking water in Aizawl city, Mizoram, India

Z. R. Thasangzuala, G. Premeshowri Devi and B. P. Mishra

The present investigation was carried out to assess water quality of 8 different sources of public drinking water in Aizawl city, Mizoram (viz. 3 handpump tubewells, 3 spring fountains, 2 treated river sources) for a period of 2 years, i.e. from June, 2012 to May, 2014. The chemical characteristics namely pH, alkalinity and acidity were analyzed at monthly intervals and results are computed on seasonal basis i.e. pre-monsoon, monsoon, post monsoon and winter seasons. It was observed that pH of water ranged from 5.24 - 8.06 for springs, 5.18 - 7.8 for ground water and 4.85 - 7.94 for treated water. Total alkalinity ranged from 24 mg/L as CaCO3 - 86 mg/L as CaCO3 for spring sources, 26 mg/L as CaCO3 - 228 mg/L as CaCO3 for ground water and 16 mg/L as CaCO3 - 110 mg/L as CaCO3 for treated water. Acidity ranged from 8 mg/L as CaCO3 - 48 mg/L as CaCO3 for spring sources, 10 mg/L as CaCO3- 66 mg/L as CaCO3 for ground water, 4 mg/L as CaCO3- 18 mg/L as CaCO3 for treated water.

Biochemical and Antibacterial studies on the selected Green (Chaetomorpha linum) and Brown (Sargassum wightii) Seaweed extracts

A. Pushparaj and R.S. Raubbin

Seaweeds are use as food and fertilizer in various countries, and its wide applications also shine in pharmacological research for the search of new drugs. In this present study, the biochemical composition and the antibacterial activity were investigated for the two species Chaetomorpha linum and Sargassum wightii. The antimicrobial activity was performed against six human pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis). The selected seaweeds were extracted by five different types of solvents viz., Acetone, Chloroform, Ethanol, Ethyl acetate and Methanol. The experimental results of the biochemical composition of Chaetomorpha linum and Sargassum wightii were such as carbohydrate (5.459mg/g and 6.369mg/g), protein (1.303mg/g, 1.865mg/g), lipid (0.701 mg/g, 0.813 mg/g) and phenol (0.768mg/g, 1.112mg/g), respectively. The antibacterial activity was done by agar well diffusion method, highest inhibition zone of 18mm was recorded in Sargassum wightii and the lowest activity 3mm was seen in Chaetomorpha linum were extracted by ethyl acetate as a solvent against Lactobacillus acidophilus.

Triticum dicoccum: Malting Effects on Proximate Composition and Organoleptic Attributes of Bakery Products

Neelam Chaturvedi, Divya Rawat, Monika Garg

Biscuits and rusks are one of the most popular bakery products with limiting various nutrients and  ietary fibers. Diccocum wheat flour is rich in minerals, vitamins and fiber contents. In present investigation attempts have been made to assess the functional properties and proximate composition of malted and unmalted dicoccum flours which were analyzed by AOAC method and sensory appraisal of malted flour based baked products by 9- point hedonic scale. The result showed that all the functional and proximate composition of malted flour revealed that water absorption capacity (57.2±0.01%), oil absorption  apacity (216±0.05%), bulk density (0.56±0.03g/cm3), swelling capacity (5.71±0.11%) whereas protein (15.60±0.31g/100g), crude fiber (2.80±0.07 g/100g), calcium (18.40±0.28 mg/100g) and iron (10.19±0.29 mg/100g) were significant at P ≤ 0.05 when compared to unmalted flour. The attempts also have been made to develop nutrient rich biscuits and rusks by addition of optimized proportions of wheat and malted dicoccum flour in different combinations. Biscuit and rusk sample (80:20) malted flour had the highest organoleptic scores in all attributes and also the functionality of the flour was not affected. The finding suggests that malted dicoccum flour had higher nutritional value than unmalted flour. Thus, malted dicoccum flour value added bakery products were develop to expand its utilization that would help in maintaining health and good source of instant snack for all age groups due to its high nutritiver value.

Degradation of Fast Green FCF Using Iron Supported Montmorillonite Clay as a Heterogeneous Photo-Fenton Catalyst

Indubala Kapoor and Sanyogita Sharma

Heterogeneous photo-Fenton is an effective process for the treatment of waste water among all advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In the present study, heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalyst has been prepared by loading of iron ion in different concentration on montmorillonite clay by wet impregnation method. This prepared catalyst was used for the degradation of FCF dye in presence of H2O2. The degradation process studied by using different experimental parameters such as pH, concentration of heterogeneous catalyst, concentration of dye, amount of hydrogen peroxide and light intensity. All these parameters strongly influenced the removal rate. The optimum operating conditions of these combined processes are reported.

Novel Ionic liquid mediated one pot synthesis of Pyranopyrazole Derivatives

M.V. Sonawane, S.B. Chaudhari, J.P. Sonawane, S.S. Patil and M.R. Sonawane

An efficient, green, and facile four-component reaction for the preparation of pyranopyrazole derivatives through the condensation reaction of aryl aldehydes, ethyl acetoacetate, malanonitrile, and hydrazine hydrate or phenyl hydrazine in the presence of commercially prepared Ionic liquid. The products pyranopyrazoles is a heterocyclic compound bearing various biological activities like antimicrobial, analgesic, vasodilator, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, inhibitors of human Chk1 kinase, molluscicidal.

Biomonitoring of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) using magnetic properties of horticultural important tree leaves in Aizawl, Mizoram, India and their temporal and spatial variations

Prabhat Kumar Rai and Biku Moni Chutia

Biomonitoring of particulate pollution through magnetic properties of tree leaves has been suggested to be a good approach to measure air pollution levels. In the present study, three horticulturally important tree leaves (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Psidium guajava and Mangifera indica) were sampled in the city area, urban area and rural area, in order to evaluate suitability of different species as passive dust collectors in magnetometry. Magnetic measurements [Magnetic susceptibility (χ), Anhysteretic remenent magnetization (ARM) and Saturation remenent magnetization (SIRM)] were found to be higher for Mangifera indica when compared with Artocarpus heterophyllus and Psidium guajava. Overall all values of magnetic measurements (χ, ARM and SIRM) decline in the following sequence: city area > urban area > rural area for all three plants. Magnetic particles are dominated by multidomain, magnetite like minerals. The results of the present study indicate that magnetic measurements of tree leaves are practicable for monitoring and determination of atmospheric pollution in Aizawl city. Biomonitoring of particulate pollution through magnetic properties of plant leaves is a rapid and inexpensive alternative to conventional atmospheric pollution monitoring. 

Isolation and Spectral Analysis of a Bioactive Compound from the Fraction of Bacopa monniera (L)

Pragya Bharadwaj, Charanjeet Kaur, D.K. Jain and Kapil K. Soni

The present paper highlights phytochemical study of Bacopa minniera whole plants which was collected from Vidisha (M.P.), identified, authenticated, shade dried and powdered for the isolation of extract by soxhletion and obtained extract was further purified by thin layer, column chromatography and purified fraction was sent to SAI, CDRI Lucknow (UP) for spectral analysis (IR, UV, HNMR, CNMR and Mass). On the basis of spectral analysis a compound Bacopasaponin was confirmed in the biologically active fraction of Bacopa monniera extract. In the results of the present study, maximum percentage yield was observed in methanol (9.54%) followed by water 3.56%. In preliminary phytochemical screening, various tests were applied and aqueous and methanolic extract was found to be strong positive for saponin and sapogenin. In Column chromatography of Bacopa monniera methanolic extract, solvent systems viz. Toluene: n-hexane: Ethyl acetate (8:1:1), Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Methanol (3:4:3), Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Methanol: Glacial acetic acid (2:4:3:1), n-Butanol: Distilled water (5:5) and Methanol : distilled water (5:5) were applied and Bm-2 fraction (Fig. 8) was found to be biologically active. In Thin layer chromatography of Bacopa monniera methanolic extract solvent system viz. Toluene: Ethyl acetate: n-Hexane (8:1:1) was used and Rf value 0.68 was found to be of Bm-2 fraction of Bacopa monneira extract. 

Use of Lead-Chromate as Photocatalyst for Degradation of Azure-B

Anjana Rawal, Rakshit Ameta, Neelam Kunwar and Ritu Vyas

In this paper, photocatalytic degradation of commercial textile dye (Azure-B), catalyzed by lead-chromate in aqueous solution under irradiation with a 200 W tungsten lamp lamp is reported. The effect of various parameters such as pH, amount of photocatalyst, concentration of dye and intensity oflight were investigated. The photocatalytic behaviour of lead-chromate was studied spectrophotometrically through bleaching of azure-B. Kinetic investigations of photodegradation indicated that reactions obey improved Langmuir-Hinshelwood model and pseudo-first-order law.

Application of Biodegradable Nanohydrogels in the Cultivation of Wild Guava

Ramesh Vundavalli, Srinivasa Rao Devarakonda, Mamatha Nakka and Suresh Vundavalli

The desertification is very huge problem in the dry land region of world and compromising the  gricultural development. Aspired by these factors, could come from the use of synthetic material with superior water absorption and retention capacity under thigh pressure and temperature to produce the  uperabsorbent polymers (SAP’s). The present research aimed to the establishment of biodegradable Nanohydrogels or sustainable to the wild plantation of and cultivation of guava in the different soil fields and also evaluated the various factors such as growth of plant, leaves and stems elongation, micro elements supplementation and its wastage reduction were examined and evaluated. The present research findings have revealed that the guava plant has shown enhancing in size of the leave is by the application of Nanohydrogels Nbp-1 enhances the growth of leaves and elongation of stem.

Physicochemical studies on lanthanon (III) chelates of monobasic tridentates possessing N, N, O moiety

Hanumant Singh Chouhan, and Gourav Dubey

Potentiometric studies on the lanthanon (III) chelates of O-(N-Pyridine -2- Methylimino) Benzoic Acid and O-(N-Pyridine -2-Methylimino) Propanoic Acid were carried out by Irving Rossotti technique in 30%(V/V) alcohol water media (μ=0.1, 0.05 and 0.01M NaClO4) at 25º, 35º and 45º C. Magnetic, Conductance and
Spectral data of the olid lanthanon (III) chelates suggested their tricapped trigonal prismatic geometry. These chelates were characterized by elemental analysis,molecular mass, magnetic moments,  onductance and spectral techniques. It 1:3 (metal –ligand) stoichiometry was observed in these chelates in which Ln (III) showed nine coordination numbers.A perusal of literature has indicated that no work has been done on Ln (III) chelates of O-(N-Pyridine-2-methylimino) Benzoic acid (HPB), (N-Pyridine -2-methylimino) Propanoic acid (HPP). 

Study of Some Physico-chemical Water Quality Parameters of Neyyar River, Kerala - An Attempt to Estimate Pollution Status

D. P. Abhilash, B. Indirani and G. Allen Gnana Raj

Levels of physico-chemical parameters (Temperature, pH, Electrical conductivity, Dissolved oxygen, Total hardness, Salinity, Total acidity and Total alkalinity) were determined in the water samples collected from River Neyyar. The parameters were highly influenced by climate. The results of physico-chemical analysis showed that temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness, salinity and total alkalinity were high in the water samples during dry season. Seasonal variations in dissolved oxygen depended on the temperature of water body. pH and total acidity are inversely interrelated. There was a positive correlation among the parameters like temperature, pH , electrical conductivity, total hardness, salinity and total alkalinity. There was a negative correlation between dissolved oxygen and total alkalinity. The pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness, salinity and total alkalinity at stations VIII, IX and X were high and therefore water from these stations were not fit for domestic and industrial uses.

Elimination of Fluoride from Drinking water using the Fruits of Emblica officinalis

S. Viola Rose

Fluoride concentration above the permissible limit (>1.5mg/l) in drinking water leads to human health hazards, such as dental and skeletal fluorosis affecting millions of people in many parts of India. It is therefore essential to remove the excess fluoride from drinking water. Fluoride can be removed from water by the method of adsorption. In the present study, adsorbent is prepared from the fruits of Emblica officinalis and studies were carried out for fluoride removal. Batch sorption studies demonstrate that the adsorbent prepared from the fruits of Emblica officinalis has a significant capacity for adsorption of fluoride from aqueous solutions. The parameters investigated in this study include pH, temperature, initial fluoride ion concentration, contact time and adsorbent dose. From this study, the adsorption of fluoride was found to be high at a pH of 5.5.

Synthesis and Antimicrobial activity of some Schiff Bases derived from 2-amino-6-substituted-1, 3-Benzothiazole and 6-alkoxy-2-Naphthaldehyde

K.A. Maher

A series of 2-amino-6-substituted-1,3-benzothiazole derivatives were synthesized and Schiff bases were prepared by reacting of 6-alkoxy-2-naphthaldehyde 3a-b with 2-amino-6-substituted-1,3-benzothiazole 2a-e to form a number of potentially biologically active compounds 4a-i.The structures of 2-amino-6-substituted-1,3- benzothiazole and Schiff bases were confirmed by using FT-IR, 1H-NMR 13CNMR and C,H,N- elemental analysis. Purity of the individual compounds was confirmed by TLC. The prepared compounds were tested against representatives of gram-positive, gram – negative bacteria and antifungal by agar diffusion method. 

Comparative Efficacy Assessment of Different Phosphatic Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Wheat

Solangi Zaheer-ud-din , Kalhoro Shahmir Ali , Mahar Amanullah , Sial Tanveer Ali , Channo Zahoor Ahmed , Lahori Altaf Hussain and Muhammad Rashid 

In order to assess the comparative efficiency of different phosphatic fertilizers on growth and yield of wheat, an experiment was conducted during Rabi (crop season) 2013- 2014 at Latif Experimental Farm, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan on wheat (cv. Kiran-95). All the cultural practices were applied according to crop requirement. Nitrogen was applied at the rate of 160 N kg ha-1 through urea. Phosphorus was applied at the rate of 85 P2O5 kg ha-1 through DAP, SSP, NPK and Zoraawar  spectively, except control and potassium was applied at the rate of 60 K2O kg ha-1 through SOP fertilizer. Soil of the experimental area was heavy in texture, non-saline (EC=0.17 to 0.54 dSm-1), medium alkaline in reaction (pH=8.0 to 8.2), moderately calcareous (4.16 to 11.66 %) in nature, poor to medium in organic matter content (0.38 to 1.24%) and AB-DTPA extractable P (1.09 to 5.77 mg kg-1), however soil was rich in AB-DTPA extractable K (91.65 to 123.24 mg kg-1). Results showed that agronomic characteristics of crop varied with different P sources. Maximum tillers (450.64 tillers /m2) and 1000 grains wt: (55.50 g) were obtained at DAP source. Plant height (91.07 cm), spike length (11.66 cm), number of grains plant-1 (407.7), straw yield (5480 kg ha-1) and grain yield (4420.0 kg ha-1) were produced more with NPK source. Phosphorus content in straw (0.074%) and grains (0.447%) were higher with Zoraawar, however K content in straw was recorded more in NPK (5.044%) than other sources.

Seasonal Physico-Chemical Analysis of Drain Water Discharge in Mandakini River of Chitrakoot, India

Rashmi Patel, Rajesh Pandey and Sunil K. Pandey

The objective of this study is to ascertain the degree of various pollutants in drain water of Mandakini river of Chitrakoot, Satna district (M.P.) India. The river flow spans up to approximately 65-70 km in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh and finally it joins the river Yamuna near Rajapur of UP. Five sampling sites were established for the collection of water samples in three seasons (Pre-monsoon, Monsoon and Post-monsoon) during the year 2012-2013. Water samples were analyzed for physico-chemical analysis by taking various parameters viz temperature, pH, DO, BOD, COD, electrical conductivity, TDS, TSS, TS and chloride contents. The observed results were seasonally compared and found above the excessive permissible level in all seasons. The direct addition of drain water in the river is creating an alarming situation to the quality of the surface as well as underground waters.