Research Paper in Green Chemistry

Studies on Carrying Capacity of Drain Water of Mandakini River; WQI Aspect Part-I in Summer Season

Sunil K. Pandey

The present study was intended to calculate carrying capacity of drain water by using water quality index (WQI) of holy Mandakini River for different purposes by using nine water quality parameters, pH, DO, BOD, COD, EC, TDS, TSS, TS and Chloride contents. Water quality assessment can be defined as the evaluation of the physical, chemical and biological nature of water in relation to natural quality, human effects and intended uses. The calculation of WQI has been made by using weighted arithmetic index method. The WQI of five sampling points reveals about six to seven times poorer than the standards. Such undesirable water confluence at Mandakini River in large amount continuously can deteriorate the water quality of river water and creatingan alarming situation to  the aquatic life as well as health of Hindu pilgrims.

Statistical Analyses of SomeAnalytical Data of the Lake Water of Badovci (Kosovo)

Fatbardh Gashi, Bardha Korca, Naser Troni, Fatmir Faiku, Ramiz Hoti, Ragbeta Gashi, Elida Dreshaj and Sadije Gashi

Generally, the surface waters in our country are permanent polluted and is the matter of fact that our cities are yet without any treating equipment program of urban and industrial waste waters. In this study the water quality (before and after chemical treatment) of the lake of Badovci (Kosovo), were evaluated. The sampling sites are geographically positioned using GIS (Geographic Information System). The results were interpreted using modern statistical methods that can be used to locate polluted regions with anomalous concentration values. Values of selected parameters were evaluated by Pearson’s factor statistical analyses to identify their correlation. The following water quality parameters were determined which were chosen as the major indicators: water  temperature, EC, pH, TDS, turbidity, totally alkalinity, totally hardness, tempory hardness, concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, CoD, BOD5 and TOC. Using UV-VIS spectrophotometry are determinated concentrations of: NH4+ tot., NH4+-N, NO2 - -tot., NO--N, NO- -tot. and detergents. The results obtained were compared with WHO and EPA standards for drinking water.

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Physalis minima (L.) fruits and their antifungal activities

Harikrishna Ramaprasad Saripalli and Lydia Swapna Nandam

The advanced technology in Biological sciences to built novel experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is surfacing into an important branch ofnanotechnology. Metallic nanoparticles are conventionally synthesized by wet chemical synthesis techniques, in which the chemicals employed are relatively toxic and  flammable. The present study focuses on cost effective and environment friendly method of nanoparticles synthesis using 1mM AgNo3 solution through the fruit extract of Physalis minima (L.), as reducing as well as capping agent. The obtained Nanoparticles were characterized and analyzed by using UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and SEM respectively. Bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited the antifungal activity against the Asperigillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans

Microwave assisted Synthesis of Some Fused Imidazo-Triazine Derivatives

Dimple K. Rathore Neelam Swarnkar and Bharat parashar

Various 8-arylidene-3,6-diphenyl-3a,4,-dihydro-3H,8H-imidazo[1,5-b]isoxazolo[3,4-e][1,2,4]triazine have been synthesized under microwave irradiation technique enabling the reactions to proceed much faster and with higher yields than conventional heating. The structures of the compounds were assigned on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR spectral data.

Effect of Vermicompost on Growth, Chlorophyll and Carotenoid Content of Medicinal Plant Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)

Pon Malar.K., Maruthi Kalaiselvi.M., Manju.R., Karpaga Sundara Preethy.R., and Muthuselvi.S

In the present study different quantities of vermicompost of Jackfruit (Atrocarpus heterophyllus) leaf litter was mixed with soil and used as potting media for the growth of medicinal plant Coriandrum sativum. The experiments were designed as T1, T2, T3 and T0 (control). The pot study experiment was carried out in Pavoorchatram, Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu. The various concentrations of 100g, 150g and 200g of vermicompost increased the plant height, leaf length, leaf width, biomass yield, dry weight and photosynthetic pigments Chlorophyll ‘a’, chlorophyll ‘b’ and carotenoidcontents were compared with control. Among the  vermicompost treated plants, the plants grown in (200g/pot) of vermicompost recorded more pronounced effect than the control.

Exploring the Diversity Richness of 30 Accessions of Phaseolus Vulgaris L. at Albanian Gene Bank.

Doriana (Bode) XHULAJ

The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the leading pulse crops in Albania. Agronomists and breeders exploit genetic variability to select for desirable traits for its improvement. However, the potential usefulness of accession in a population in any ecozone can only be estimated if its traits have been characterized. A morphological-agronomic characterization of 30 accessions was carried at Genetic Resources (Gene Bank) experimental field of Tirana. In this study are presented the results obtained on evaluation of 11 traits based on IPGRI “Descriptors list for Phaseolus vulgaris” used in Gene Banks as; seed length, seed width, seed height, weight of 100 seeds, seed coat primary colour, seed coat secondary colour, seed coat pattern, veins presence, hilium colour, seed shape-crosscut, seed shape-longitudinal cut. Strong positive relations are observed among weight of 100 seeds and seed length (r =0.83). A cluster dendogram was developed to determine the diversity richness based on quantitative traits. The accessions were grouped into 7 clusters depending on their similarity of the traits considered. AGB1341 and AGB1317 are the nearest neighbor with the lowest divergence levels. These 30accessions with their data on characterization have been conserved at Gene Bank for posterity and research use. 

In Vitro Prolifration of an Important Medicinal Plant Aloe Vera

Madhulika Singh, Priya Rathore and Arpita Shrivastava

Aloe vera (Syn: Aloe barbadensis Mill.), a medicinal plant, has a great potential in cosmetic and drug industry due to presence of more than 200 bioactive compounds. Natural propagation of Aloe vera, by means of suckers, is very slow and insufficient to meet the increasing demand of pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant ever known and the most applied medicinal plant worldwide. Regarding its imperative potential and medicinal as well as commercial uses micropropagation of Aloe vera was performed under aseptic condition. The explants of Aloe vera were cultured on MS media supplemented with different combinations and concentrations of growth hormones such as BAP, IAA and KN. The maximum numbers of shoots were produced in the media supplemented with 1.5mg/L KN whereas the media comprising 1mg/L IAA and 0.5mg/L BAP was considered most effective for the root proliferation. 6-7 shoots of about 5-7cm was seen in response in shoot number and shoot length. The present work was done for the successful regeneration of plants for the effective future expects regarding their vital medicinal and commercial uses.

Biofilm Formation as Microbial Development In Staphylococcus Aureus, Klebsiella Species And Escherichia Coli

Madhulika Singh, Protima Banerjee and Suchi Gupta

Sewage contains many wastes and impurities like animal and human wastes. Due to these impurities, many Enterobacter species get favorable conditions to grow in it. Enterobacter species are harmful to human and animal health and cause many harmful diseases. Biofilm formation becoming the major problem now- a – days. Many species like Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus species have the capacity of forming biofilm. These species are isolated from sewage and are cultured in different media to study the morphological characteristics, and then specialized media are used for specific organisms to study the colony morphology and biofilm formation. Biochemical test and [AST] Antibiotic Sensitivity Test were performed to check the enzyme activity and resistance towards antibiotics, respectively. To observe the biofilm formation of these species, (LB) Luria Britain broth is used. After the proper period of incubation, O.D. (optical density) of culture is measured at 600 nm in spectrophotometer. This study was based on the biofilm formation as microbial development and its resistance to antibiotics. The study over this subject revealed the wrinkled shaped colonies of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus species and they show resistance to almost all antibiotics.

Heavy metals Investigation in productivity parts of wheat crop during winter seasons in Singrauli district of Madhya Pradesh India: A Case Study

Rajesh Pandey, Pradeep K. Singh, Sunil K Pandey, Bhavana Singh, Babbu lal Patel and Manish K. Dwivedi1

The study of undertaken for heavy metal content by fly ash and coal waste in Singrauli industrialised district of India, using atomic absorption spectrometry. Ashes from cropping plants were collected and analysed for the quality of crops and quantity of Cr, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu, As, Ni and Co detectable levels of all were found. These metals distrusted the metabolic processes of plants due to variable accumulation in productivity plants, which further affected the human populations through food chain. In present investigation were focuses on the winter season growing wheat crops plant. Studies concern to the monitoring or observation of current status of all the metals during winter growing around the industries of Singrauli district. The Soil profiling were also performed for presence of heavy metals with specificity of quality, resulted indication was observed an alarming situation in Singrauli district of India. Concentration of heavy metals on winter growing wheat crops was shown a co-relation to contents of heavy metals in soil. Increased content of heavy metals in soils was not in consistency by means of content in plants. Usually content of heavy metals in plants according to our results were lesser than their content in soil. The results also suggested that heavy metals content plants showed in the productivity part of plants where they are present in the mobile form which depends on pH, content of organic matter in soil etc.

Oxidative Cleavage of Gabapentin with N-Bromosaccharin in Acid Medium

H.D.Gupta, S.K.Singh, P.K. Pandey, R. K.Garg, K.N.Sharma

Kinetic and mechanistic study of oxidative cleavage of Gabapentin with NBSA in 30 % acetic acid- water medium under different kinetic conditions and temperatures. The effect of the substrate (Gabapentin) and oxidant (NBSA) were studied. The fractional order with respect to the concentration of substrate and oxidant was unity. A increase in polarity of the medium increased the rate of the reaction. Added saccharin had retarded effect on the reaction, However, added acrylonitrile (monomer), nonoccurrence of turbidity and whit precipitate, indicating the no participation of free radicals during the course of the reaction. Highly negative entropy, ΔS#, indicates a structured transition state. A suitable mechanism in consonance with the observed facts is proposed.

Design and Experimental Analysis of Solar Powered Distillation unit for purification of Sea water

P. Rohini Kumar, L. Nageswara Rao, D.Kamalakar and M. Venkateswara Rao

There will be almost no water left on earth that is safe to drink without purification after 20-25 years from today. This is a seemingly bold statement, but it is unfortunately true. Only 1% of the Earth's water is in a fresh, liquid state, and nearly all of this is polluted by both pathogens and toxic chemicals. Though there are many physical and chemical processes like reverse osmosis, electro dialysis, multi effect desalination to treat sea water, solar distillation is chosen due to its economic viability. A single asymmetrical solar distiller which we have designed in this experiment can yield 4 litres of fresh water from 20 litres of sea water. The efficiency of the still is 20%.The total dissolved solids content is decreased from 29,240 ppm to 9 ppm, whereas chlorides content is reduced from 14,981 ppm to 2 ppm. Along with these sulphates and hardness are reduced from 2583 ppm to 0 ppm and 5050 ppm to 1 ppm respectively. All aspects that affect clean water output have been analysed including the effect of surface area on productivity, material selection. Factors that will directly impact overall build cost per unit have also been evaluated, such as material selection, size, and simplicity. The final design adds numerous features to increase the efficiency of a basic asymmetrical solar still.

Study on the Chemical Composition from the roots of Melissa officinalis

Ammar A. Al-fadhli, Jamal A. Nasser, Naji A. H. Al-masehali

A chemical study was done on the root of Melissa officinalis. The separations of the chemical components were carried out by different chromatographic techniques and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic method including nuclear magnetic resonance as well as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three compounds were isolated and identified as friedo-olean-7-one, β-sitosterol and betulinic acid.

Planktonic Diversity with Reference to Limnological Characteristics of Sarangpani Lake, Bhopal (MP)

Sobia Rafiq Lone, Tawseef Ahmad Mir, Abha Swarup and Kamlesh Borana

During the present investigation physico chemical and biological parameters-were analyzed to determine the water quality and valuation of planktonic diversity of Sarangpani-lake of Bhopal (MP).Water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, conductivity and total hardness havebeen found to varybetween 14°C to 38°C, 7.3 to 9.0, 2.0 mg/l to 6.5 mg/l, 280 mg/lto 624  mg/l., 410 (s/cm) to 953 (μs/cm)and 168 to 349mg/l., respectively. During present-study Phytoplankton ranged from 21 sp to 42 sp and Zooplankton ranged from 30 sp to 52 sp.

A Review on Management of TamakaShvasa With Reference to Bronchial Asthma by Rasayana(~ Rejuvenation) Drugs

Gulhane Harshad, Bhople Sunanda, Nakanekar Amit,Mahakal Nilesh

At present many chronic recurrent airway disorders are increasily seen all over the global population. A population aged 65 yrs and over has been increasing in the developed countries. The prevalence of Asthma in elderly patients is estimated between 6.5% to 8%. Asthma is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly patients. In present era Bronchial Asthma is increasing day by day because of increase in level of pollution and stressful lifestyle followed by people. The differential diagnosis of Asthma is difficult in older adults and is underdiagnosed and undertreated in the older population.It is often seen that patients of Tamakashvasa come to Ayurvedic physician in chronic condition of the disease. Many of them are dependent on steroids, inhaler etc. Prolonged use of these medicine can produce multiple side effects. In Ayurveda kalpa Drakshadyavleha describe by Sushruta is very useful in such condition because the kalpa acts as both Shvashar and Rasayana(~ Rejuvenation). Details of which will be presented in full paper

Kinetics of adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solutions using agricultural wastes

Satish Patil, Jayesh Patil, Naseema Patel

Systematic batch mode studies of adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit shell powder (TFSP), Chiku (Manikara zopata) leaf powder (CLP), Coconut (Cocos nucifera) coir pith (CCP), Toor plant (Pisum sativum) leaf powder (TPLP) were carried out as a function of process parameters includes initial MB concentration, dose of adsorbent, pH, agitation time, agitation speed, temperature and particle size. The best fitting isotherm models were found to be Langmuir and Freundlich. The monolayer (maximum) adsorption capacities (qm) were found to be 250, 250, 333.333 and 250 mg/g for TFSP, CLP, CCP and TPLP respectively. The dimensionless separation factor (RL) values lie in between 0 to 1 indicated favourable adsorption. Lagergen pseudo -second order best fits the kinetics of adsorption (R2 = 0.999, qe(the) ≈ qe(exp)). Intra particle diffusion model showed boundary layer effect and larger intercepts indicates contribution of surface adsorption was high in rate controlling step. Adsorption was found to increase on increasing pH, increasing temperature and decreasing particle size. Thermodynamic analysis showed negative values of ΔG indicating adsorption was favourable and spontaneous, positive values of ΔH indicating endothermic physical adsorption and positive values of ΔS indicating increased disorder and randomness at the solid- solution interface of MB with the adsorbents. The adsorption capacities were found to be of the order of CCP > CLP > TPLP > TFSP.

Antioxidant, cytotoxicity, membrane stabilization and anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of Sarcochlamys pulcherrima leaves

Md. Tanvir Hossain

The aim and objective of the current study was to investigate the chemical groups present, evaluate the possible antioxidant activity, cytotoxic activity, membrane stabilization, and anthelmintic activity of the crude ethanolic extract and different fractional extract of Bangladeshi Sarcochlamys pulcherrima to justify its use in traditional treatments. The total phenolic contents (111.79 mg GAE/g extract) and total flavonoid contents (275.78 mg quercetin/g extract) of ethanolic extract were found significantly higher as compared to other solvent fractions. Phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, reducing sugars, glycosides. The IC50 values based on the DPPH (13.69 μg/ml) for ethanolic extract and lipid peroxidation (28.23 μg/ml) for chloroform fraction were showed lower potential antioxidant properties. The LC50 values of crude extract, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform soluble fractions were found 3.550 g/ml, 0.327 μg/ml, 4.423 g/ml and 3.739 g/ml respectively. The positive control vincristine sulphate showed LC50 at a concentration of 0.757 g/ml. In hypotonic solution induced conditions, the samples were found to inhibit hemolysis of erythrocyte membrane within the range of 93.71±0.592% to 99.18±0.519%. The ethanolic extract of Sarcochlamys pulcherrima have mild anthelmiontic activity. Data from present results revealed that Sarcochlamys pulcherrima act as an antioxidant agent due to its free radical scavenging and cytoprotective activity.

Comprehensive Microbial And Chemical Analysis Of Potable Water During The Year 2014-2015 Around Villages Of Cbit –Vbit Campus , Vidya Nagar , Proddatur , A.P , India

C.M.Bhaskar Reddy , A.Sai Tejaswini , C.Dhanya, G.Lakshmi Lavanya, G.Sai Aparna

All living organisms on the earth need water for their survival and growth . Colorless ,odorless ,and taste less magnificient compound on the planet earth is water.Water is a universal solvent . People on globe are under tremendous threat due to undesired changes in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of air, water and soil. Due to increased human population, industrialization, use of fertilizers and man-made activity water is highly polluted with different harmful contaminants. Natural water contaminates due to weathering of rocks and leaching of soils, mining processing etc. It is necessary that the quality of drinking water should be checked at regular time interval, because due to use of contaminated drinking water, human population suffers from varied of water borne diseases. The availability of good quality water is an indispensable feature for preventing diseases and improving quality of life.The present work is aimed at assessing the water quality around villages of cbit- vbit campus vidyanagar , proddatur, kadapa dist Andhra Pradesh , India. This has been determined by collecting ground water samples to a comprehensive physico chemical analysis. In the present study four water samples are taken from different villages around cbit-vbit campus proddatur.

Development and validation of estimation of gallic acid in ethanolic extract of Catharanthus roseus leaves

Patil Vandana P., Vithaldas Smita M., Kale Suwarna H., Achari Prasad D., Angadi Sachidanand S. and Devdhe Subhash J.

Background Gallic acid is phenylpropanoid and possess antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, antiviral, astringent, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity. It is found in many herbal plants. Objective The objective of this research work is to develop and validate a new, simple, precise and economic HPTLC method for the determination of Gallic acid in ethanolic extract of Catharanthus roseus or Vinca rosea leaves. Methodology The estimation of Gallic acid by HPTLC on silica gel 60 F254 TLC plate using Chloroform: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (7.5: 6: 0.5 v/v/v) as mobile phase and quantified by densitometric scanning at 254 nm. Result & discussion Beer-Lambert’s law is obeyed in the concentration range of 100-450 ng/spot and is described by the regression equation y = 12.759x - 150.76 with a regression coefficient (r2) = 0.999 (n = 5). For Gallic acid, the value of LOD and LOQ are found to be 0.127 and 0.386 ng/spot respectively. The percentage recovery of Gallic acid was found to be 95.76%. The % RSD for intraday and inter-day precision was 0.56 and 0.37 respectively showed excellent % RSD which is less than 2. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity and robustness. Conclusion The statistically validated results indicate that the proposed method has good accuracy and precision. The method is new, simple and economic as compare to other chromatographic methods. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of Gallic acid in herbal plants and its product.

Solvent extraction of chromium (III) by Tetra butyl ammonium bromide from aqueous oxalate solutions

A.V.L.N.S.H.Hari Haran, D. Murali Krishna and K.C.Purnima

Solvent extraction of chromium (III) from aqueous oxalate solutions by tetra butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) in chloroform has been studied. The optimum conditions for extraction were established from the study of the effect of several variables like– pH, effect of standing time on extraction, concentration of metal ion, extractant etc. The extracted species are identified.

Preliminary Phytochemical Evaluation of Leaf Extracts in Aegle marmelos, Phyllanthus emblica and Murraya koenigii of Kattumannar Koil, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu.

M. Pathmavathi, S. Manikandan, P. Thamizhiniyan and T. Ravi Mycin

The ethano-medicine involves the use of different plant extracts or the bioactive constituents of vital importance in the health application at an affordable cost and study of such ethanomedicine keenly represents one of the best avenues in searching new economic plants for medicine. The present investigation is carried out in Aegle marmelos, Phyllanthus emblica, Murraya koenigii leaves were collected from Kattumannar koil, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of three plants confirm the presence of various phytochemicals like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, coumarins and steroids.

Antioxidant potential of extracts from legumes (Glycine max, Cajanus cajan, Cicer arietinum and Vigna uniculata) commonly partaken in India

Preeti Verma and Sheel Sharma

Legumes play an important role in vegetarian diet in India. They are good sources of protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and fibre. Beside these macro and micro nutrients, they provide antioxidants which are considered to prevent diseases. In this study, raw forms of soybean (SoR), pigeonpea (PiR), chickpea (ChR) and cowpea (CoR) and their extracts (SoE, PiE, ChE and CoE) prepared rom using household processing methods were assessed for their antioxidant activity. To check antioxidant activity, DPPH (2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity), ABTS (2,2'-Azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assay), FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay), TPC (Total phenol content), CTC (Condensed tannin content) and TFC (Total flavonoid content) parameters were assessed. The results showed that among the four legumes studies, SoR had highest DPPH, ABTS and FRAP while PiR was found to have highest TPC, CTC and TFC activity in raw form. A similar trend was also observed in their extracts.

A Review on Technologies for Water Pollution Control

Marimuthu T.,Rajendran, S. and .Manivannan, M

This review paper analyses various technologies to reduce water pollution . Water pollution due to effluents from textile dyeing  ndustry is a cause of serious concern. The techniques for detection of dyes are cost intensive and futile because the dyes undergo chemical changes under environmental conditions and the transformation products may be more toxic and carcinogenic than the parent molecule. Hence instead of detecting each chemical individually it is advisable to study the toxic effect of the effluents on various living organisms. Various techniques of toxicity and carcinogenicity measurements are discussed in this review. Remediation using physical, chemical and biological methods has also been critically reviewed.

Structure of aldobiouronic acid and glucuronic acid from Acacia auriculiformis degraded gum polysaccharide

Dr. Ram Babu Singh

Acacia auriculiformis gum on acid hydrolysis with sulphuric acid yielded L-arabinose and D-galactose in the molar ratio of 1:4 with traces of L-fucose. The component sugars of aldobiouronic acid and glucuronic acid were obtained by graded hydrolysis of degraded gum polysaccharide. The derivative of aldobiouronic acid was obtained as methyl ester methyl glycoside.

Nature of seeds polysaccharide from Cassia alata Linn. plant

Dr. Ram Babu Singh

Cassia alata Linn. seeds yielded a water soluble polysaccharide as Dgalactose and D-mannose in 2:3 molar ratio. It consumed 1.12 moles of iodine by iodometrically after 36 hrs. Sugars were identified by paper chromatography and separated by cellulose column chromatography. Specific rotation of  polysaccharide is a low positive and linkages must be of α and β-type. Absorbance were recorded at 814 and 874 cm-1 in IR-Spectra (KBr) indicated (1→6)-α-type linkages in Dgalactopyranose unit at non-reducing end while (1→4)-β-type linkages in Dmannopyranose units in the main polymer chain of the seeds polysaccharide. Derivatives of D-galactose were prepared as D-galactose phenyl hydrazone m.p. 168- 1700C, Lit. m.p. 170-1710C and D-mannose as D-mannose phenyl hydrazone m.p. 196-1980C, Lit. m.p. 195-1960C.