Research Paper in Green Chemistry

Kinetic Approach to the Mechanism of the Oxidation Reaction between 2-Phenyl Ethylamine and N-Bromoisonicotinamide in Aqueous Acetic Acid Medium

R. K.Garg, S.K.Singh, P.K. Pandey, K.N.Sharma, H.D.Gupta

A kinetic study of oxidation of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA), a bioactive  compound, with potent oxidant, N-bromoisonicotinamide (NBIN) has been carried out in presence of HCl in aqueous acetic acid medium at 308 K. Accelerating effect of [H+], and reaction velocity retarded when added concentration of isonicotinamide, which is the one of the product in acid medium. Variation of ionic strength of the medium shows accelerating effect on rate of reaction in both media. The stoichiometry of the reaction was found to be 1:1. The oxidation products of PEA were identified as the corresponding aldehyde. The reactions were studied at different temperatures and the activation parameters have been evaluated. The reaction constants involved in the proposed mechanisms were computed. The proposed mechanisms and the derived rate laws are consistent with the observed experimental results.

Association of vitamin D receptor gene Apa1 (G>T) and Taq1 (T>C) polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of impaired glucose tolerance in subjects of Bangladeshi origin

Md. Sahabuddin, Hafij Ali, Md. Faruque Miah, Enaya Zannath, M. S. Akhter,M. Billah1, Z. Hassan and L. Ali

Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms have been found implicated with impaired pancreatic B cell secretion and glucose intolerance. The present study was undertaken to determine genotype of VDR gene Apa1 (G>T) and Taq1 (T>C) polymorphism of a group of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects of Bangladeshi origin and investigate its association with its insulin sensitivity and cell secretory capacity. A total number of 54 IGT subjects were recruited in the study and 68 healthy subjects served as control. Circulatory insulin level was found to be higher (p<0.001) and reflected in their lower insulin sensitivity (as judged by HOMA%S) level (p=0.003). The G>T genotypes frequencies in the control and IGT were 0.176, 0.618, 0.206 (wild, heterozygous variants and homozygous variants respectively) and 0.185, 0.537, 0.278 respectively. The T>C genotypes frequencies were in the control were 0.500, 0.456, 0.044 (wild, heterozygous variants and homozygous variants respectively) and IGT 0.444, 0.426, 0.130 respectively. Genotypes frequencies of G>T and T>C   olymorphisms did not show significant association with IGT (p=0.606 and 0.230 respectively). Wild and Variant genotypes of the two marker alleles did not show significant difference regarding glucose level(fasting and 2 hour postprandial) and insulinemic status (absolute insulin, HOMA%B and HOMA%S) either in Controls or IGT subjects. It was concluded that i) VDR gene Apa1 (G>T) and Taq1 (T>C) polymorphic alleles are not associated with IGT of Bangladeshi origin; (ii) The polymorphic marker alleles did not have any effect on fasting and two hour blood glucose and insulinemic status of the IGT and controls;and (iii) The data reconfirmed that lower insulin sensitivity is predominantly present in the IGT subjects of Bangladeshi origin. 

Biological variation on plants and plants product via accumulation of Cadmium and their derivative as biotoxicant: A Review

Rajesh Pandey, Pradeep K. Singh, Sunil K Pandey, Bhavana Singh and Babbulal Patel

Cadmium (Cd) a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant of all the non-essential heavy metals, Cd is perhaps the metal which has attracted the most attention in soil science and plant nutrition due to its potential toxicity to humans, and also its relative mobility in the soil-plant system. Thermal power plants produce enormous quantity of pollutants such as fly ash as a byproduct of combustion of coal or any pulverized fuel at higher temperature. Industrial effluents contain several heavy metals including Cd distrusted the metabolic process of living organism due to easily dispersion and mobilization in environment. The eatables and applicable potential plants and vegetables altered by Cd and concern derivatives which directly and indirectly posing severe risks to human health which, extremely toxic even in low concentration, and will bioaccumulate in organisms and ecosystems. Biological alterations cum variations on plants were already documented. Some positive causes are bioaccumulation of Cd in variable ranges in different plant, its organs and different parts are some specificity presence in the plant and their different organs including product also which create or possess uptake of pollutants like Cd. Monitoring/documented investigation represented the symptoms of Cd in plants. Interest has therefore risen in its bio hazardous potential. Present review representing the monitoring or current status of Cd in certain plant and plant products, resulted indication were observed an alarming situation concern to biological variation on viable plants.

Biochemical Effects of Some Synthetic and Natural Food colorants on Young Albino Rats

Abdellah A. Dafallah, Abdelmonem M. Abdellah, Emam A. Abdel-Rahim and Sherif H. Ahmed

Food additives are added to food for many reasons such as preservation, coloring and sweetening. Some of these additives have been accused of causing some health problems. The present study was conducted to investigate the biological effect of some natural (curcumin, carrotin and curcumin) and synthetic (tetrazine, sunset yellow and erythosine) food colorants on some hematological and biochemical parameters of male albino rats (rattus norvegicus, spraguedawlay strain). Result indicated that administration of synthetic food colorants revealed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of body weight gain, feed efficiency, total hemoglobin, total soluble protein, albumin, red blood cells (RBCs) counts, and significantly increased total birilubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, and percentage of organs weight gain. Whereas WBCs, thyroxin (T4) and 3,5,3 - triiodothyronine (T3) were not affected by the investigated food colorants. Therefore, it is not advisable to add synthetic colorants as additive in man’s diet or as a drink. Instead, natural colorants should be cautiously used as food colorants. 

Evaluation of the antioxidant potential and the total phenolic content of different extracts of Thai basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

George, Saramma and Yeboah E.M.O.

The antioxidant potential of different extracts of Ocimum basilicum was determined by measuring the total phenolic content (TPC) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH-RSA). A crude extract was first obtained using methanol which was labelled CMEOB (crude methanol extract of Ocimum Basilicum). The bulk of this extract was then sequentially fractionated using solvents of increasing polarity in the order: n-hexane (HEOB), dichloromethane (DCEOB), and butanol (BEOB) leaving a residual extract (REOB). The TPC of the five extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method while the DPPH-RSA was determined by three methods; a qualitative TLC bioautographic assay, a semi-quantitative TLC method and a spectroscopic method. The results showed that the DPPH-RSA of the five extracts were in the order: CMEOB > BEOB > DCEOB > HEOB > REOB. The DPPH-RSA of the five extracts of Ocimum basilicum correlated positively with the TPC (R2 = 0.95). The crude methanol extract showed many components with high radical scavenging activity in the TLC-DPPH bioautogram. Overall, the results showed that O. basilicum L., which is currently widely used as a culinary herb, is rich in antioxidants and can therefore be targeted for use as a safe naturally occurring source of antioxidants. 

Study of Diet Counseling on Weight Reduction among Urban Women

Joglekar A, Banerjee S and Mishra M

Obesity and overweight have been reported as a risk factor for diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, etc. To make people aware of this fact counseling may play an important role, hence; a randomized prospective study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of Diet Counseling in overweight and obese patients on weight reduction urban areas of Raipur, Chhattisgarh. A total of 50 subjects was identified and counseling was provided on diet, physical activity and behavioral modifications. Statistical analysis of data collected revealed that mean levels of body mass index before and after intervention after three months; projected a ‘t’ stat of 12.40 which was found to be statistically significant at P (T<=t) one-tail 4.92135E-17. It was concluded from the study
that counseling provided to the subject helped in decreasing total body weight, waist circumference and risk of weight related complications. 

In Vitro Micropropagation and Conservation of Prunus Native Stone Fruit Trees

Doriana (Bode) Xhulaj, Efigjeni Kongjika and Skerdilaid Xhulaj

The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro micropropagation and  conservation potential of wild native stone fruit trees, part of the genus Prunus. The results obtained suggest that the type of explants used can affect the establishment and in vitro propagation of these wild species. Shoot tips can adapt easier compared to other type of explants used. The presence of BAP hormone, is necessary to promote the proliferation of our four plant species explants during the first stage of in vitro propagation. Plantlets development and their micropropagation coefficient values suggest their adaption to the in vitro multiplication phase. In this study the use of BAP in low levels, induct shoot formation with higher values of length, number of leaves and additional buds compared to higher concentrations of it. The results obtained on the in vitro rooting process, indicate that the reduction of mineral concentration of MS media nutrient, in half of their normal values, and the presence of auxin in high levels can affect the stimulation and formation of new roots. Applying the darkness regime during the rooting phase gave a positive effect in rhizogenesis process of Prunus species. Using slow growth techniques (low temperatures) we could storage our Prunus stone fruits for a period from 3.5 months to 7.5 months. 

Biochemical constituents of red alga Gracilaria corticata Agardh, 1852 from coastal waters of Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

Sudha Rani, D, Yedukondala Rao, P and Rukmini Sirisha, I

The biochemical constituents such as protein, carbohydrate, lipid and ash in the dry tissue of the red alga Gracilaria corticata have been reported during February, 2006 - January, 2008 from the coastal waters of Visakhapatnam. The percentage composition of protein, lipid, carbohydrate and ash contents showed variations in their abundance in different seasons. The protein content ranged from 14.82% to 28.33%, carbohydrate content ranged from 51.33% to 73.99%, lipid content ranged from 4.31% to 14.74% and ash content ranged from 1.70% to 15.41%. The mean values of protein, carbohydrate, lipid and ash were 21.19%, 62.59%, 9.44% and 6.78% respectively. Seasonally highest protein content (24.82%) was noticed in the monsoon, highest carbohydrate content (67.01%) was noticed in summer, highest lipid (11.51%) and ash (10.16%) contents were observed in monsoon.

Optimization of Functional Food Ingredients and Their Processing Levels for Preparation of Upma Mix

Monika Jain, Khushboo Gupta, Payal Jain, Chetna Singh, Nishtha Rastogi

Diabetes is a major health problem nowadays. Fenugreek seeds play an important role in preventing and controlling diabetes as a functional food. In the present study, appetizers, starters and precooked foods were developed incorporating soaked fenugreek seeds. Standard recipe along with four variants, containing variable amounts and soaking time of fenugreek seeds and amount of fat were prepared. Best variant from each food category was selected using sensory analysis. Upma mix with 3 g of fenugreek seeds, 10 hours of soaking time and 3 g of fat content were selected as the best recipe. It was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of three process variables; amount and soaking time of fenugreek seeds and fat content on the response variables; energy, fibre and overall acceptability were assessed. Three optimum recipes having high overall acceptability and low energy content were obtained. Each serving of these optimum recipes had (i) 4.00 g fenugreek seeds, 2.00 g fat and 12 hours soaking time with 152.62 kcal energy, 7.00 g fibre and 8.7 mean hedonic score for overall acceptability; (ii) 3.00 g   enugreek seeds, 1.50 g fat and 11 hours soaking time with144.79 kcal energy, 6.52 g fibre and 8.4 mean hedonic score for overall acceptability; (iii) 3.00 g fenugreek seeds, 1.50 g fat and 11 hours soaking time with 144.79 kcal energy, 6.52 g fibre and 8.2 mean score for overall acceptability. The optimum recipes were nutritionally adequate and had good acceptability.

Extraction and Isolation of Pulp from Leucaena leucocephala for Paper Manufacturing

Hemlata Raikwar and Anita Chowbey

In the present study, Leucaena leucocephala was considered as a potentially pulping raw material and alternative source fibers in the paper manufacturing. The kraft pulping process can be used to individualize cellulosic fibers and remove lignin by white liquor in which main components are sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide. The results showed that during the chemical pulping  processes strength properties of Subabul are most promising. Moreover, the net yield percentage (40-46%), rejection percentage (0.05-5.5%) and kappa number (18) were also found to be promising paper manufacturing. Therefore, this raw material constitutes a worthwhile choice for cellulosic fiber supply

Invasion in Different Ecosystems, Continents and Global Impacts on Biodiversity: Multifaceted Review on Sustainable Green Approach

Prabhat Kumar Rai

Biodiversity is extremely precious resource issue in current Anthropocene as it is inextricably linked with sustainable development as well as global climate change and green eco-sustainable eco-restoration tool. Plant invasion is the priority threat to global biodiversity and hence deleterious to both ecology and economy of any nation. Exotic invasive plant species poses serious threat to the native biodiversity. Invasive plants transmogrify the landscape ecology in a highly complex manner leading to a sort of ecological explosion. Global terrestrial as well as aquatic ecosystems are invaded by various invasive plant species. Invasive species are alien species whose introduction and spread threatens ecosystems, habitats or species with socio-cultural, economic and/or environmental harm, and harm to human health. Present review precisely describes the global problems of invasion in different ecosystems, continents and its multifaceted impacts. Plant invasion is now increasingly being recognized as global problem and various continents are adversely affected, although to a differential scale. Invasive plants not only alter plant ecosystem function but also result in large economic costs from lost ecosystem services. Quest for the ecological mechanism lying behind the success of invasive species over native species has drawn the attention of researches worldwide particularly in context of diversity-stability relationship. Present review precisely describes the global problems of invasion in different ecosystems, continents and its multifaceted impacts. Certain aquatic and terrestrial plants may be utilized for pollution mitigation and ecosystem restoration and hence offer sustainable green approach for its eco-sustainable management. An eco-sustainable green approach for invasive species management which are second most severe threat to biodiversity is the need of the hour. However, we have to have literature review on their impacts on ecosystem ecology, impacts on different continents along with environmental and socio-economic impacts.