Research Paper in Green Chemistry

Synthesis of Aromatic Heterocyclic Ketimines: Part-I. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Studies of Biomolecule from L-Lysine.monohydrochloride with 3-AcetylPyridine

C. J. Patil1 , M. C. Patil2 , Ankur S. Patil1 and N. A. Patil1*

The Biomolecular Ketimine or Schiff Base ligand is synthesized by reacting 3-Acetyl-pyridine with L-Lysine.monohydrochloride by conventional method. Further the synthesized products were characterized by colour, TLC, physical constant and UV-Vis spectra and FTIR spectral method. The biomolecule was also tested for the in-vitro biological activity and the results obtained were compared with Ciprofloxacin as standard drug.

Effects of Heavy Metal Chromium (VI) on Root Tip of Allium cepa L. and its Cytological Study through Compound as Well as Fluorescence Microscope

Indrani Chandra, Sudipta Sarkar, Upasona Ganguly and Budhaditya Ghosh

Higher plants, an important material for genetic tests to monitor various pollutant present in the environment. Among the plant species, Allium cepa has been used to evaluate chromosome aberrations and disturbances in the mitotic cycle. Now a days, it has been used to assess a great number of genotoxic/antigenotoxic agents, which contributes to its increasing application in environmental monitoring. The A. cepa is commonly used as a test organism because it is cheap, easily available and handled and has advantages over other short-term tests. The mitotic index and chromosomal abnormalities were used to evaluate genotoxicity and used to verify mutagenicity of heavy metal chromium (hexavalent). By treating in different concentrations of chromium such as 10ppm, 20ppm, 30ppm, 40ppm, 50ppm and 60ppm it was observed that chromium treatment decreased mitotic index whereas chromosomal abnormalities such as sticky anaphase, abnormal metaphase, sticky bridge etc. were increased. The chromosomal abnormalities were then studied under fluorescence microscope using Acridine Orange dye.

Isolation and Characterization of Flavones from the Leaves of Chrozophoraplicata (Vahi) A. Juss .Ex. Spreng

Nafisa A. Elgazali, Mohammad Abdel Karim, Asma H. Mohamed and Abdelmonem M. Abdellah

Flavonoids are secondary constituent with a wide array of biological activities including: antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial and antitumour activities. Species of Chrozophora genus (Euphorbiaceae) are monoecious, shrubby herbs and annual plants and their leaves, stems have long been used in food and ethnomedicine for the treatment of infectious diseases. This study was designed to investigate the flavonoids of the medicinally important plant Chrozophoraplicata. The phytochemical of the ethanolic extract of the leaves indicated the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and tannins. Fractionation of the ethanolic extract by column and TLC chromatography gave flavones-compound1. The structure of the isolate was elucidated by a combination of spectral techniques (UV,1HNMR and MS).

Chemical and Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles from Trachyspermum ammi (carom seeds) and Camellia sinensis (green tea leaves) Extracts and Their Comparative Characterization

Kirti Rani, Jagriti Narang, Nidhi Chaudhary & Prajwal S Bahukhandi

Advance Nano biotechnology has led to provide commendable development of various techniques which are used to synthesis the metal nanoparticles to carry out their applications in various fields of life-sciences. Recently, preparations of iron nanoparticles are reported and their applications were studied for the perspective of Nano biotechnology by using various innovative methods, modes and sources. It was proved helpful very well to throw limelight on the advantages of green technology over other chemical technology used for synthesis of iron nanoparticles. Hence, our study is based on the synthesis of iron nanoparticles from Trachyspermum ammi (carom seeds) and Camellia sinensis (green tea leaves) by green technology and by chemical reduction methods and further their characterization done by Dynamic Light Scattering and UV Visible Spectroscopy for the comparative analysis of green technology and chemical reduction methods which are used for the synthesis of iron nanoparticles. Observed size of prepared iron nanoparticles from carom seeds and green tea by green technology and chemical reduction method were observed in the range of 50-90 nm, 50-200nm and 70-90 nm respectively. UV Visible Spectroscopy was also confirmed the synthesis of iron nanoparticles from carom seeds and green tea by using green technology have the same peak as the peak observed for synthesis of iron nanoparticles by using chemical reduction methods at 500nm wavelength. This was lead to confirm the synthesis of iron-nanoparticles because the excitation of surface plasmon vibrations of iron nanoparticles take place at 500nm. It was confirmed that the extracts of plants were efficient of producing iron nanoparticles and best alternative to other chemical synthesis technologies. However, chemical reduction method is rapid and easier for the synthesis of nanoparticles, but the synthesis of iron nanoparticles by using green technology is found to be comparable better eco-friendly and cost-effective choice due to avoidance of toxic chemicals. Hence, the green technology derived iron nanoparticles of natural sources can be used for further considered for safe and non-toxic applications in fields of biosensor technology, biomedical approaches, pharmaceutical industry, clinical therapeutic measures used for the treatment of various diseases.  

Challenges to Synthesize Modified Organism by using Unnatural Base- Pairs

Rakesh K. Tiwari and R. P. Ojha

The genetic base pairs are constrained by the two natural base pairs A-T and GC. The Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen H- bindings are fundamental basis to explain their function in cell. The in-vivo and in-vitro expansion of the genetic base pair would serve as the foundation of a semi-synthetic organism with an expanded genetic code. Recently it is proposed that H-Bonds in base pairs is not absolute requirement for DNA function rather the acceptable shape and packing energy is the key for central dogma in molecular biology. Here we discuss the possibility and challenges of building artificial organism using new unnatural base-pairs and elaborate the development in this field. In a model proposed by group of quantum physicist believe that the electron clouds of nucleic acid in DNA as a chain of coupled harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbour are entangled thus questioning the notion of treating single bases as logically independent units and perhaps providing a new spectacles to understand DNA function

Thermal Analysis of Metal Complexes with 2-[1-(2- Hydroxy-Phenyl)-Ethylidene Amino]-4-Methyl-Phenol (AMPOHA)

Suraj B. Ade, Nana V.Shitole and Subhash M. Lonkar

2-[1-(2-Hydroxy-phenyl)-ethylidene amino]-4-methyl-phenol with used to synthesize Ti(IV), Zr(IV), Cd(II) and Hg(II) chelates. Metal complexes were characterized by Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen elemental analysis, UV-Visible,Infra-red, X-ray diffraction study, 1H NMR and TGA/DSC.  The thermal stability of metal complexes depends essentially on the nature of both the central metal ion and the ligand. The object of the study is to investigate water of hydration, coordinated water and thermal stability of the complexes by Thermogravimetry (TG) and Differential scanning analysis (DSC). The thermal behaviors of all the metal complexes were studied in the range of room temperature to 10000C and for Hg(II) metal complex up to 5000C.

Antioxidant and Nephroprotective Activity of Evolvulus alsinoides against Gentamicin induced Nephrotoxicity

Raja Rao, H.V. Anil Kumar, Dr. Muralidhar.S.Talkad, Manasa N Bushan, Bhargavi. K

Shankhpushpi is botanically termed as Evolvulus alsinoide, the plant extract exhibited antioxidant, anti-ulcer and immunomodulatory activities. In addition, recently scientific research has disclosed adaptogenic and anti-amnesic properties. The phytochemicals present in the methanol extract of Evolvulus alsinoides were alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins and flavonoids.Gentamicin (GM) is used for the treatment of urinary tract infections which induce nephrotoxicity. This study designed to investigate the possible protective effects of Evolvulus alsinoides against GM-induced renal damage in rats. Plant extract were administered  to  Wistar  albino  rats  in  two  different  doses  (250  &  500mg/kg)  orally  for 11 days. Nephro toxicity was induced by intraperitonial administration of gentamicin at the dose of 80mg/kg for 8 days of treatment protocol.The parameters assed 1-1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) anti-oxidant assay, GSH, LPO and histopathological evaluation of kidneys were carried out. Extract inhibited 68.20 ± 2.10%. GSH, In Positive control (Gentamicin) 0.29 ± 0.024, when compared to treated 0.52± 0.064 and in the Negative (normal) control were 0.70 ± 0.045. In LPO, Positive control (Gentamicin) 0.48 ± 0.032, when compared to treated 0.27 ± 0.056 and in the Negative (normal) control were 0.19 ± 0.071

Green Synthesis of Almond Oil Mediated Bovine Serum Albumin Nanobricks/nanocubes

Dr. Kirti Rani

The synthesis of metal and polymeric nanoparticles with controllable geometry has now become a new attracted extensive scientific approach. In this area, many chemically modified nanoparticles such as nano sphere, nanowires, nano discs, nanocubes, nanorodes and nanobricks are going to be formulated with many biocompatible and nontoxic biomaterials or metals ions. These biomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, chitosan, albumin and lipopolysaccharides and polysaccharides has been used to prepared these fabricated nanocubes and nanobricks along with tagged metal ions such as gold, silver, iron and copper etc. which improve the oxidative etching effect in nanocubes and nanobricks that refereed its dominative factor in determining nanostructure geometry. Therefore, optimization of nanostructure geometry play a very crucial role in synthesis of these nano biomaterials. Bovine serum albumin was found to be favorable and cost effective matrix to prepare chemically modified almond oil mediated nanobricks due to its well-known exploitable properties e.g. biocompatibility, non-antigenicity and non-toxicity. Hence, this proposed work can provide an effective approach of green technology to control the shape of biocompatible bovine serum albumin nanobricks by using almond oil as naturally occurring emulsifier. Characterization of prepared bovine serum albumin was done by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to minimize the expected their most feasible nanosized nanostructures: nanobricks/nanocubes. Further, this proposed method can be proved a cost effective and safe green method to prepare non-toxic and biocompatible albumin nanostructures to explore further their therapeutic applications to be used as nonviral nano cages for loading desired biological and chemical components to carry out the most specific targeted site delivery. 

Studies on Performance Characteristics of Salt-gradient Solar Ponds using Aqueous Solutions of Copperas

Prof. (Dr.) C. M. Narayanan

Attempts have been made to compare the performance characteristics of a salt – gradient solar pond that uses aqueous solutions of copperas (ferrous sulphate) with that of a conventional pond which uses sodium chloride solutions. The results of the study indicate that both ponds give comparable performance within the same range of solar insolation. Since copperas solutions create less corrosion problems than sodium chloride solutions, their use in commercial solar ponds can be thus recommended. The performance of the solar pond employing aqueous solutions of copperas has been studied both experimentally as well as mathematically. Such ponds also exhibited good stability with respect to maintaining the salt gradient for a prolonged duration of time. The economy of utilisation of copperas solutions in commercial salt – gradient solar ponds is further augmented by the fact that copperas can be economically recovered from industrial effluents such as the spent pickle liquor from iron and steel industries and the waste acid sludge discharged from titanium dioxide manufacturing units.