Research Paper in Green Chemistry

Adsorption of Cadmium from Aqueous Solution on Low Cost Adsorbent

Saima Atif, Bushra Ayyaz and Numrah Nisar

In the present study cadmium removal by rice husk is researched. The adsorption process at different pH and contact time was studied and optimal pH 6 was attained. Equilibrium concentration of cadmium was obtained in 6 h. Ho et al’s second order of reaction best illustrate the kinetic data. The study is conducted at room temperature (22±1oC) which exhibit the cadmium adsorption by rice husk followed the Freundlich isotherm. Maximum removal obtained by rice husk was 55%. Adsorption data in column studies was supported by Thomas model. From result it could be identified that rice husk has great efficiency to remove cadmium from aqueous solution.

Food and Therapeutic uses of Moringa oleifera and its Socio-Economic Significance in the South of Benin

Codjo Goudjinou, Clément Ahouannou, Mohamed M. Soumanou

The objective of this study is to identify the endogenous knowledge of the Benin people about the uses of different parts of the two Moringa species (oleifera and stenopetala) grown in Benin. To reach this goal, a questionnaire was developed to record the different uses and socio-economic significance of these species plant in twelve (12) municipalities in South of Benin. The sample size is 245 households, 92 greens sellers (in urban markets) and 35 producers of Moringa plantations. It appears from this study that 65.7% of the people surveyed use the Moringa, leaves of which are exclusively the most used part of the plant. Roots and seeds are also used by people for therapeutic purposes, in the respective proportions of 16.45% and 11.25%. The supply of leaves comes mainly from concessions gardens. The leaves are consumed fresh or dry. They can be either dried by direct sunlight or in the shade. The plant has a socio-economic importance in the study area. This study reveals that the Moringa oleifera possesses proved nutritional and medicinal virtues and is part of the local food habits. For this purpose, an awareness of the virtues of this plant is necessary to promote the consumption of this resource in order to contribute effectively to the food and health security of beninese populations.

Preliminary Studies on Activity Guided Fractionation of the Ethanolic Extract of Dried Flowers of Aegle Marmelos

K. D. K. P. Kumari, K. Samarasinghe, S. M. Handunnetti and T. S. Suresh

Aegle marmelos is a reputed medicinal plant with many biologically active compounds. Activity guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of dried flowers of Aegle marmelos, based on the anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic effect was studied in the present study. The ethanolic extract was partitioned into ethyl acetate and hexane and the fractions were tested for anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic effect in rats. The volatile compounds in ethyl acetate and hexane fraction were analyzed by GC-MS. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic effect and it was further separated by column and thin layer chromatography. All the fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening. Alpha-phellandrene and eugenol was the most abundant volatile compound identified in the ethyl acetate and hexane fractions respectively. The fraction which showed the highest anti-inflammatory effect contained poly phenols and triterpenoids and its FTIR spectrum exhibited the presence of O-H/N-H/C=O/C-Cl and C=C groups. The fraction with the highest hypoglycaemic effect contained coumarins and flavonoids and the FTIR spectrum exhibited the presence of O-H/N-H/C=O and C=C groups. The identified  monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes may responsible for the typical aroma of the extracts of dried flowers of A. marmelos while triterpenoids, coumarins and flavonoids may responsible for the anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic effect of the ethanolic extract of dried flowers of A. marmelos

Tannery Effluent Toxicity Assessment on the Growth and Germination of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Bean)

Dhananjay Kumar and Narendra Kumar

A cumulative discharge of effluent from the industries like tannery, paper & pulp, fertilizers etc. contain several toxic chemicals which, not only degrade the soil quality but also adversely affect the plants health consequently, the food quality, production and environmental safety. Tannery effluent containing high level of metals, particularly Cr causes inhibitory effect on seed germination and seedling growth. Chromium compounds are easily soluble and bio-available and have many inhibitory effects on vegetation in the form of stunted growth, poor root development, discoloring of leaves, decreases in chlorophyll, protein and carbohydrate content. The present study was aimed to assess the effect of tannery effluent on seed germination of Phaseolus vulgaris (Bean) along with the toxicity assessment following primary growth parameters such as root length, shoot length and germination percentage. The percentage of germination was increased significantly in 25% tannery effluent over control, while rest of the treatments (50 and 75%) caused the germination inhibition while, the percent of leaf, root, stem and total plant dry weight were significantly decreasing with increased effluent concentration as compared to control. The observed decreasing concentrations of protein were found as 36.2±2.93, 16.9±1.8, 11.5±0.92 and 7.5±2.2 mg/g, whereas, concentrations of carbohydrate was found to be 294.1±37.2, 254.3±41.2, 226.5±28.6 and 178.2±30.6 mg/g at control, 25, 50 and 75% effluent concentration respectively.

A Kinetic and Mechanistic Study of Oxidation of Aromatic Primary alcohol by Polymer Supported Oxidizing Agent

Vilas Y. Sonawane

The kinetic of chromium (VI) catalyzed oxidation of 1-Phenylalcohol has been studied by the rate of disappearance of [Cr (VI)].The reaction is zero order with respect to [Cr(VI)]. The reagent supported on anion exchange resin was found to be more efficient in the oxidation reaction. The reagent is very easily separated from the reaction mixture and can be manually removed from the reaction mixture, which remains clear during and after the reaction. The kinetic of oxidation of 1-Phenylethanol with chromic acid supported on anion exchange resin like Amberlite IRA-67 [Cl-] in 1, 4-dioxane has been studied. The reaction is found to be of zero order each in concentration of alcohol and oxidant. The reaction constants involved in the mechanism and the activation parameters have been calculated. There is a good agreement between observed and calculated rate constants under different experimental conditions. Acetophenone was detected as end product

Bioremediation of Textile Effluents using Bacteria

K. Suganya and K. Revathi

The present study was conducted to investigate the decolorization of azo dyes using bacteria isolated from textile dye effluent. Two different bacteria were identified and the isolates were identified as Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The decolorization activity was tested against commercially available dyes namely Reactive Red 195, Reactive Yellow 17, Reactive Orange 72, and Reactive Blue 36. Decolorization experiment was performed both in solid and liquid medium.  In solid medium maximum zone of formation was observed in P.aeruginosa against RB 36 (32.96±0.31 mm). In liquid medium B.megaterium registered maximum decolorization against RY 17 (86.65±0.57 %).

Photocatalytic Bleaching of Bromothymol Blue using Polyoxochromate a Well-Dawson Catalyst

Uma Vyas, Pokar Lal, Jaishree Gurnani, Shailendra Singh Rathore and Ajay Sharma

The photocatalytic bleaching of Bromothymol dye by using Well-Dawson catalyst was observed spectrophotometrically. Well-Dawson catalyst was synthesized by using cupric chloride dihydrate, chromium chloride and sodium tungstate. A 200W tungsten lamp was used for irradiation. Progress of the reaction was followed kinetically by measuring the optical densities of the reaction mixture at various time intervals. The effect of variations of different parameters like pH, dye concentration, amount of semiconductor and effect of light intensity on the rate of degradation was also studied. A tentative mechanism for photobleaching of bromothymol blue is proposed.

Influence of Growth Regulators on Biomass and Hydrocarbon Yield of Pedilanthus tithymaloides

Anshu Rani and Hanumant Singh Chouhan

Pedilanthus tithymaloides is a common potential petrocrop of Rajasthan.Its latex is rich in low molecular weight hydrocarbons which can be converted into petroleum like substances. Studies were conducted to observe the influence of phytohormones: IAA, NAA, GA3, CCC and 2,4,5-T on growth parameters. Maximum plant height and percent dry weight could be attained in GA3 treated plants. Biomass production was maximum in IAA treated plants followed by GA3 and CCC. Latex yield was also maximum in IAA treated plants.Maximum sugars were obtained in CCC treated plants whereas, chlorophylls were not increased by growth regulators.

Phytochemical Screening and green Synthesis of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticle from Leaf Extract of Pongamia Pinnata (L) Pierre of Semi-Arid Region of Kachchh

Mani Patel , Vijay Ram , Pragnesh Dave , Ekta Khosla

Nanotechnology has opened new opportunities in the field of medical sciences and pharmaceuticals. Commercially, nanoparticles are in great demand in electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy, and medicine. Today in nanoparticle production green synthesis, using biological material including medicinal plants as a starting material, is in vogue. The bio active compounds found in plants induce the reduction of silver ions from silvernitrate to silver nanoparticles. The extract of dried leaf of an important medicinal plant, pongamia pinnata (L.) pierre was used for the phytochemical analysis and synthesis of biogenic silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by observing the colourchanges from pale yellow to dark brownish after treatment with silver nitrate (1mM). The synthesized particles were characterized by UV-NIR visible spectroscopy, FTIR, X-ray diffraction and Nano particle synthesizer. The characteristic absorption peak at 385nm in UV-NIR-visible spectrum confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles. FT-IRanalyses indicate the involvement of carboxyl, hydroxyl, phenol and amine groups. The phytochemical investigation of the extract has been carried out which indicated presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, phenols and tannins. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) spectrum of the silver nanoparticles exhibited 2θ values corresponding to the silver nanocrystal and Nano particle synthesizer revealed the size of silver nanoparticles in the range 35-70nm.

Studies on Plant Microbes Interactions through Allelopathy

NiveditaGhayal and MeghaBiware

The invasive and native weeds have very high environmental plasticity because of which they keep affecting all other organisms in their vicinity. These are called allelopathic interactions that are primarily based on the synthesis and release of secondary metabolites by higher plants that initiate a wide array of biochemical reactions, which induce several biological changes. Such metabolites are known as allelochemicals / ecochemicals which have synergistic impact acting at molecular, cellular and organism levels. To survey the changes, the aqueous and non-aqueous extracts of native weed Achyranthes aspera and invasive weeds such as Alternathera tenella, Cassia uniflora, Eupatorium adenophorum, Euphorbia geniculata, Synedrella nodiflora possessing allelopathic properties were screened for antimicrobial activity against bacteria Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and a fungus Fusarium moniliformae by using standard Agar well diffusion method. The results revealed that B. cereus, B. subtilis, P. vulgaris showed pronounced inhibition zones with some of the extracts of selected weeds. Biochemical analyses were carried out to know the primary metabolites which are the precursors for secondary metabolites (allelochemicals) by using standard methods. From the present study, it is concluded that the secondary metabolites have holistic antimicrobial activity. Further studies are concentrated on assigning antimicrobial activities to specific allelochemicals existing in leaves of these weeds.

Performance of Chlorophyll Content in Mulberry Leaves by Turmeric and Ginger as Intercropping in Paired Row Mulberry (V-1) Plantation under Integrated Nutrient Management Practices (INM).

G.S. Chandrashekar, G.M. Patil, G.K. Sudarshan, Jayappa J and Vinay Kumar M. M

A field and lab experiment was conducted at University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. There were nine treatments laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The mulberry garden was pruned at middle level, ploughed once in between rows with wooden plough, treatments were imposed as per the plan. The mulberry plants were pruned at middle level during every 60 days. At 285 days after planting (DAP), turmeric and ginger were harvested by manual digging of underground rhizomes. The rhizomes were separated from the plants and cleaned. The chlorophyll content in mulberry leaves was recorded at 60 days after pruning. Observations were recorded on five randomly selected plants in each treatment and total chlorophyll was estimated by DMSO methods, 100 mg of fresh leaf tissue was weighed and cut into small pieces. The data was analysed statistically. Pooled results showed that application of (T3) 5t VC ha-1 + 75 per cent recommended inorganics ha-1 to mulberry + 12.5 t FYM ha-1 to turmeric recorded significantly higher chlorophyll content  compared to rest of the treatments and was on par with T7,T1 and T5. Significantly lower chlorophyll content was recorded with paired sole mulberry (T9). From the study revealed that there was no negative effect of intercropping of turmeric + ginger on mulberry and its chlorophyll content. So that turmeric and ginger are best suitable high value intercrop in mulberry plantation to increase farmer’s income.

Chemical Constituents and in Vitro Biological Screening of Hydroacetonic Extracts of 3 African Toothpicks

Amani Brice Kadja, Yves-Alain Békro, Jean-Luc Pirat, Janat Akhanovna Mamyrbékova-Békro ,Jean-Noël Volle, Marc Lecouvey, and Marie-Hélène Boyer- Lavergne

The chemical and biological survey has been achieved on the stems of Erythrophleum africanum (Fabaceae), Terminalia albida (Combretaceae) and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Rutaceae), from 3 African plants used as toothpicks. The mineral quantification using the scanning electron microscope, highlight the presence of Al, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, S, Si with a relative abundance in K and Ca, when the organic characterization by UPLC revealed the existence of phytophenols notably epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG), chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, burkinabines, ellagitannins). Compared to vitamin C and butylhydroxytoluene (BHT), hydroacetonic extract from E. africanum stem exhibited a significant anti-radical power (92.19 %) with regard to DPPH. The biological screening of the aforesaid extract showed an antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. The hydroacetonic extracts from E. africanum, T. albida and Z. zanthoxyloides stems signed an activity with regard to 6 cancerous strains MDA-MB 231, Caco-2s, B16F10, MDA-MB 435, SNB75 and C6, with a good antiproliferative profile opposite Caco-2, SNB75 and of C6. Among the extracts of the drugs tested, the one of Z. zanthoxyloides stem made notice a more important effect on all cancerous strains.