Research Paper in Green Chemistry

Green Chemical Extraction of Binary Mixture of Acid Dyes from Textile Effluent

Narinderjit Kaur, Sangeeta Sharma, Satindar Kaur, Ekta Khosla

Pollution caused by textile effluent containing dyes is a major threat to mankind.Their concentration must be reduced to acceptable levels before discharging into environment to avoid health hazards. Among several methods, solvent extraction using reverse micelles is the most promising method in terms of simplicity and efficiency for dye removal from effluent.In this study solvent extraction method is used to remove binary mixture of Acid Orange-7 and Acid Yellow-17 dyes from textile effluent using cationic surfactant CPC (cetylpyridinium chloride) and suitable organic solvent. Experiments were conducted by mixing a known quantity of dye in aqueous phase and organic solvent containing cationic surfactant in a simple mixer. Dye molecules get entrapped in core of reverse micelles present in organic phase and it is subsequently separated from aqueous phase which leads to significant removal of dyes. The effects of different parameters such as concentration of surfactant, dye concentration, pH, temperature, salt concentration etc. have been studied in the present work.

2.Synthesis and Investigation of Antimicrobial Activity of Novel Pyrazoline Derivatives

V. M. Barot and S. N. Panchal

Study of Heavy Metals in Yamuna Water in Agra City and their Effect on Human Health

Smita Verma and Rajvir Singh

The present study was carried out on Heavy Metal in Yamuna water in Agra city and their Effect on Human Health. The River water samples were collected from the selected sites of Yamuna River of Agra City, during the months of March and April, 2014- 2015. The Yamuna water samples were taken to the laboratory and analyzed. The analysis was done on the heavy metals like Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Nickel, Lead, Mercury and Zinc. The concentrations of the heavy metal in the Yamuna River water were found above the permissible limits as prescribed by the ISI standards. The heavy metals enter the human body, through the consumption of fruits, vegetables and other consumable products, hence causing various ill-effects, such as anaemia, high blood pressure, liver problems and hepatic, neural damage, respiratory disorders and renal disorders.

Removal of Methylene Blue using Thick Rind of Water Melon as an Adsorbent

R. K. Dandge, M. B. Ubale and S. D. Rathod

Wastewater from textile industries is a major cause of water pollution in most developing countries. In order to address the issues of water pollution and high cost for treatment processes, the use of inexpensive and environmentally benign adsorbents has been studied.The objective was to find a better alternative to the conventional methods. The locally available vegetable waste Thick Rind of Water Melon (TRWM) was tested for dye removal from aqueous solutions. The study investigated the removal of Methylene blue using the following operational parameters contact time (10 min to 50 min), adsorbent dose (0.2-1gm/100 ml) and pH (2-7), initial concentration (10-50 mg/L) and Temperature (293K to 333 K).It was found that the percentage removal of dye increased with anincrease of the initial concentration, contact time and dose of adsorbent. The basic pH solution of dye showed better adsorption capacity as compared to the acidic dye solution. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were fitted to the data well. The obtained results were encouraging and indicative of using TRWM as a low cost alternative to commercial activated carbon in wastewater treatment for the removal of dyes.

Allelopathic Activity of Callus Extracts from Different Brazilian Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) Cultivars on Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa): Effect of Light Quality and Temperature during Callogenesis

Gabriel Casimiro, Renata Garcia, Georgia Pacheco, Ivana Leal, Elisabeth Mansur and Naomi Simas

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an herbaceous Brazilian plant with high contents of lipids, proteins, vitamins and carbohydrates. Although many biological activities have already been evaluated in extracts from different parts of A. hypogaea plants, the allelopathic effect of in vitro materials is less investigated. In this work, the allelopathic activity of callus extracts from different Brazilian peanut cultivars on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was evaluated. Calluses were induced from different explants (cotyledons, embryonic axes, embryonic leaflets, and leaf segments) of five peanut cultivars (IAC 886, IAC Caiapó, IAC Tatu ST, IAC 8112 e BR-1) in response to different concentrations of picloram under fluorescent lamps, or white, blue, red or combination of blue and red light-emitting diodes (LEDs), at 25±2°C or 30±2°C. Calluses derived from leaf segments cultivated at 25±2°C on MS medium supplemented with 1.25ìM picloram were selected for the evaluation of allelopathic activity. The highest activity was observed in extracts from calluses induced under fluorescent lamps or combination of blue and red LEDs (up to 66.89% inhibition of radicle growth in relation to the control). These results may open new possibilities for the use of in vitro materials in the control of the rate of plant growth.

Determination of Total Phenolic & Flavonoid Contents in Rauvolfia tetraphylla Linn

A. B. Kawde, R. G. Weginwar, A. Bharati, D. Akkewar and G. Gond

Rauvolfia tetraphylla Linn, belonging to family Apocynaceae (Oleander family) is an ethnomedicinal plant used to cure many diseases. Stem bark of Rauvolfia tetraphylla Linn. was analyzed for total phenolic and flavonoid contents in different extracts. The amount of total phenols were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent by using gallic acid as a standard compound and the total phenols were expressed as mg gallic acid equivalents /g extract. The quantitative determination of flavonoid (flavonols) contents calculated in terms of quercetin equivalent by using aluminium chloride colorimetric method for flavonoids determination. Quercetin was used to perform the calibration curve. The maximum phenolic and flavonoid contents was found  to be 42.3 ±0.46 mg GAE /g extract and 22.02 ±0.04 mg QE /g extract in methanol extract of Rauvolfia tetraphylla Linn.

Extraction, Partial Purification and Characterization of Polygalacturonase from the Plant Jatropha tanjorensis

Trinath Ghosh, Onkar Nath Ghosh, Joydeep Karmakar, Abhishek Mukherjee and Bibhas Guha

Pectinases are commercially important enzymes with many industrial applications such as fruit juice and wine clarification, tea fermentation, cotton bioscouring, degumming of bast fibers, paper making and waste water treatment. Pectinases are commercially produced by bacteria and filamentous fungi. Recently it has been found that plants can produce substantial amount of pectinolytic enzymes. In this study, we, for the first time report the presence of polygalacturonase activity in the shrub Jatropha tanjorensis, a common weed found in tropical and subtropical countries. Extracts obtained from different plant parts such as stem, bark and leaves exhibited 7,800 ± 200; 21,800 ± 500 and 9,200 ± 200 units of pectinolytic activity per 100 g biomass respectively. The latex also contained very high pectinolytic activity (66,700 ± 2,000 units per 100 ml). The enzyme was found to be active in the pH range of 2 to 11 with highest activity at pH 7.5 ± 0.5 and a wide temperature range of 10 - 80 °C with optimal activity at 60 ± 2 °C. The enzyme kinetics study showed a maximum velocity of 1.976 µmol/min and Km of 3.3 mg/ml substrate (pectin) concentration. The enzyme efficiently degraded crude apple, guava and citrus peel pectin. However inclusion of Mg2+ inhibited the enzyme activity.

Influence of Thermal Radiation and Seasonal Variations of Chlorophyll Contents and Gari Yield in Some Selected Cassava Cultivars (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) in Rivers State Nigeria

G. I. Oyet, S. C. Achinewhu, P. Audu and N. O. Ogbodo

The influence of thermal radiation and seasonal variations of chlorophyll contents and gari yield in some selected cassava cultivars (manihot esculenta crantz) in Rivers State, Nigeria was examined. Three improved variety of cassava cultivars coded-NR-8082, NR-84292 and TMS-30572, grown within 2 km flare distance were studied for their chlorophyll yield and response to flare radiation and seasonal variations in Rumuekpe flowstation of Rivers State. The plots were designed according to distances: 0-150m, 150-300m, 300-450m, 450-600m and 1000-2000m. Randomised complete block design (RCBD) with three (3) treatments in five replications was used. The total chlorophyll content of the leaves was then calculated using the method of Arnon, Heat radiation was measured with a pyranometer equipped with an automatic logging system. The statistical differences were analysed by analysis of variance and least significant difference. The results showed that at 0-150m (603.84w/m2), the chlorophyll level of (NR-8082), (NR-84292) and (TMS-30572) for dry and wet seasons were 2.00mg/g and 2.20mg/g, 2.10mg/g and 2.30mg/g and 2.07mg/g and 2.26mg/g respectively. The chlorophyll values at the control distance 1000-2000m ((428.83w/m2) showed that (NR-8082) 5.06mg/g and 5.45mg/g, (NR-84292) 5.10mg/g and 5.50mg/g,(TMS- 30572) 5.05mg/g and 5.45mg/g for dry and wet seasons respectively. The chlorophyll level increased as the distance from the flare increased. The effect of flare distance on chlorophyll level in cassava leaves showed gari yield ( NR-8082) of 14.0% , (NR-84292) of 8.2% and (TMS- 30572) of 9.5% at 0-150m and the gari yield of 25.4% for NR-84292,23,5% for NR- 8082 and 24.0% for TMS-30572 at 1000-2000m. The chlorophyll level of 3 cassava cultivars grown around flare site showed significant effect during the dry season (P<0.05) and no effect noticed during the wet season. The study revealed that the high radiation intensity coupled with dry season accounted for the low yields of gari (8.2%) at 0-150m flare zone compared to high gari yield (25.4%) at the control plot. The implications of gas flare on cassava production by farmers in the region are addressed.

Morpho-Anatomical Study of the Underground and Dyeing Organs in Galium latoramosum Clos. (Rubiaceae)

L. M. G. Rojas, A. L. Pascualides, R. A. Hernandez and M. J. Joseau

Galium latoramosum has medicinal and dyeing properties. In Argentina, native peoples used its roots to obtain dyes in the red range. While there are references to anatomical studies of the genus Galium, information describing the anatomical structure and location of the pigments in G. latoramosum was not found. Descriptions of the various underground organs, reserve substances and location of natural pigments in the genus Galium are imprecise and inconsistent. The chances of the species asexual reproduction are also unknown. The aim of this study was to describe the external morphology and the anatomy of underground dyeing organs of G. latoramosum in order to provide basic knowledge for domestication. Agamic structures were collected from mother plants of three populations and their behavior was registered in the nursery. Then, samples of underground organs of mother-plants were collected and freehand cuts were performed. The cut material was examined using an optical microscope and usually no staining techniques were used in order to know where the pigments were located. It is concluded that the subterranean stems of G. latoramosum are rhizomes and stolons, which emit adventitious roots from nodes. The pigments are located in the cortex, phloem and pith of adults and young rhizomes and in the cortex and phloem of adventitious roots of G. latoramosum.

Synthesis and Characterization of New Azo Compounds from Substituted 2-Aminothiazole Ring

Entesar. O. Al-Tamimi* and Hussein. F. Abdul Mahdi

The presented work involved the preparation of new Azo compounds containing aromatic heterocyclic (thiazol ring) derived from substituted amino benzoic acid. The preparation procedure involves a series of steps the first step includes the reaction of synthesized 2-aminothiazol compounds with nitrous acid at (0)°C to form the corresponding diazonium salts. The second step involved coupling the newly synthesized diazonium salts with different amines and phenols. All the prepared compounds in this work were characterized by melting point and softening points with other physical properties, FTIR, H1-NMR spectra, Screening of the antimicrobial activity of the prepared azo compounds was tested against two types of bacteria; Gram positive (Stapylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli).

Aqueous Extracts from Nopal (Opuntia Ficus-Indica): Antiacetylcholinesterase and Antioxidant Activity from Phenolic Bioactive Compounds

Asma Ressaissi, Nebil Attia, Pedro L.V Falé , Rita Pacheco, Vitor H. Teixeira, Miguel Machuqueiro, Carlos Borges, Maria Luísa M. Serralheiro

Cladodes of the cactus plant Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill, known as nopal, are used in ethnic gastronomy, such as Mexican cuisine, and for medicinal purposes. This study aimed at obtaining a method to extract bioactive phenolic compounds from nopal. Five nopal aqueous extracts were prepared using different methodologies and their composition was determined by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS/MS. The antiacetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antioxidant activities were assayed as models of biological effects. The main components identified were piscidic acid, eucomic acid and isorhamnetin derivatives. The highest biological activities were found for aqueous extracts after precipitating the ethanol-insoluble material. The best IC50 values obtained were 780±20 g/ml and 330±40 μg/ml for AChE and DPPH, respectively. In silico molecular docking studies indicated that both piscidic acid and isorhamnetin glycosides are able to interact with the AChE active site, but with significantly different binding constants. These results indicate that nopal is a promising plant for the development of polyphenol-based new functional foods.

Phytochemical Analysis and Medecinal Evaluation of Hydro Ethanolic Extract of Two Varieties Hibiscus Sabdariffa Calyxes

F. T. D. Bothon, J. Adovelande, F. Cazier, F. Avlessi and D. C. K. Sohounhloue

Phytochemical and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of aqueous-ethanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa altimissa and Hibiscus sabdariffa sabdariffa calyces were examined. The phytochemical analysis of the calyces indicated the presence of tannins, anthraquinone and saponins in the two varieties. The GC-MS analysis of the hydro ethanolic extract result showed the presence of bioactive oxygenates which revealed a broad spectrum of many medicinal properties. This study also helped to identify the formula and structure of biomolecules which can be used as drugs from leaf extract.