Research Paper in Green Chemistry

Preliminary Phytochemical Studies of Ethanol, Chloroform And Petroleum Ether Extracts of Rhododendron Arboreum Sm.Ssp. Nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. Leaf

D.Selvaraj and B.S.Jegan,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/6/4/20106.

Rhododendron arboreum Sm.ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg is an endemic plant of Western Ghats was screened for its phytochemical constituents. Preliminary screening of leaves of Rhododendron arboreum Sm.ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg using chloroform, ethanol and petroleum ether solvents has been done. The test indicated the presence of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, saponins, terpenoids, glycosides, tannins, proteins, steroids and carbohydrates. Protein content was maximum in ethanol leaf extract. Next to protein phenol is present in higher amount in ethanol extract. The phytochemical compounds present in the extracts have curative activity against several human problems. These activities are due to the presence of bioactive compounds of the plant.

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Orthosiphon thymiflorus leaf extract

Bashpa P, Seema Devi R and Bijudas K,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/6/4/20711

Orthosiphon thymiflorus is a medicinal aromatic herb belongs to Lamiaceae. It is mentioned in Ayurveda and also used in folk medicine as a medicinal plant. It is antidiarrheal, alexiteric, vulnerary and febrifuge. Even though it has been widely used in medicinal preparations and in folk medicines, little literature is available about the cytotoxic potential and phytochemical profile of the plant. The bio-reduction of aqueous Ag+ ions by the leaf extracts of Orthosiphon thymiflorus has been studied. The reduction of metal ions by leaf extracts of Orthosiphon thymiflorusleads to the formation of silver nanoparticles of fairly well defined dimensions. The synthesised nanoparticles have been isolated and characterised by UV-Visible and infra-red spectral analyses. All the obtained results clearly indicate the formation of well-defined silver nanoparticles.

Evaluation of Physico-Chemical Parameters and Tracemetal Contents of Ground Water of Jaipur City during Post Monsoon Season 2016

Sunita Prajapati,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/6/4/21317

The physico-chemical parameters with trace metals of the ground water of different areas like Mansarovar, Malviya Nagar, Jawahar Nagar and Shastri Nagar of Jaipur city during the post monsoon season of the year 2016, have been analaysed. This study was conducted to determine the water quality of ground water which is used for drinking in the study area. The alkanity and total hardness are marginally high but are in acceptable range. The B.O.D and C.O.D. are under standard limits in the study areas. However it needs some degree of treatment before consumption.

Study of pollen morphology in some plants

Anil A. Kshirsagar,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/6/4/21823.

The present paper deals with the study of 15 plants belonging to 11 different families confined to palynological studies (pollen morphology). The pollen morphology of selected plants indicates that the pollens are varies in shape and size. The pollen type is mainly Monoporate, Tri-periporate, Colporate, Trizonocolpate, Tricolpate, Prolate, Winged are noted in such a selected plant species. The symmetry is radial, bilateral and spiny radial etc.

Phytochemical Studies and Anti-Oxidant Activity of the Barnyard Millet - “Echinochloa Frumentaceae Link”

Dr.G.Abirami S.Revathi, R.Rajalakshmi. S.Pushpanjali, R.Saranya,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/6/4/22431.

The aim of present investigation was to determine the chemical compositionand Antioxidant activity of millet and the recent advances in research carried out to date for purposes of evaluation of nutritional quality and potential health benefits of millet grains. The present study is to analyze the presence of Phytochemical and Pharmagonostical screening such as Microscopy, Ash value, Moisture content, Extraction of Millet and Identification test were studied using various solvents. In vitro study of Antioxidant activity was carried out by using Hydrogen peroxide Scavenging method. A Phytochemical profile of selected plant Millet was Barnyard millet “Echinochloa frumentaceae link” (EF) belongs to Family Poaceae. The aim of this article is to work the latest scientific research on Millet, with the hope that it will continue.

Phytotoxicity assessment of petrochemical industry effluent and phytoremediation potential of plants growing naturally at contamination site

Sangeeta Anand, Dhananjay Kumar, Sushil Kumar Bharti and Narendra Kumar,

Petrochemical industry effluent was analysed for various physicochemical characteristics including heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Hg, Zn, Mn and Fe). The toxicity of the petrochemical industry effluent was tested on seeds of rice (Basmati - 198, Push sugandh and Sambhamasuri), pulse (Chick pea K-3256, Mung N-1, Masoor VL-1) and oil seeds (Mustard BR-40, Alsi KL-43, Seasame G til-3). Radicle growth, germination index, phytotoxicity, metal tolerance index at the germination stage was recorded in seeds exposed to wastewater. Toxicity (%) was found to be maximum in Basmati-198 and linseed B-67 i.e.71.8 and 26.85% and minimum in pusa sugandh and mung-N-1 i.e. 46.6 and 18.35 % at 100 and 50% of effluent concentration respectively. Plants growing naturally viz. Phyllanthus amarus, Sida cardifolia and Cucumis sativus at industrial site were evaluated for metal accu ulation and for the purpose of phytoremediation. Results revealed that S. cardifolia is capable for remediation of metals viz. Fe, Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cd, Ni and Cr from contaminated site and can be used for phytoremediation.

Photocatalytic Treatment of Textile Industry Effluent having dyes using some Composite semiconductors

Sukumal Jain and Shiv Singh Dulawat,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/6/4/24252.

In this research, the photocatalytic degradation of textile wastewater from Bhilwara textile industry in Rajasthan, India, using composite TiO2 and ZnO with different ratio as photocatalysts was investigated. The experiments were carried out at 36oC in a stirrer bath reactor by using Ultra-Violet photo oxidation process. The effect of pH, time, amount of catalyst and ratio of composite TiO2 and ZnO was investigated and the optimized conditions for maximum amount of degradation were determined. The progress of reaction was observed spectrophotometrically. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide proved to be very effective catalysts in photocatalytic degradation of real textile industrial water. The maximum decolorization achieved was 85.22% by using composite TiO2 and ZnO 1gm/l with (90:10) ratio at 36o C and pH of 8.5, within 150 minutes of irradiations. The results indicate that for real textile wastewater, composite TiO2 and ZnO (90:10) ratio is comparatively more effective than only TiO2 or only ZnO. This study proves that real textile wastewater reacts differently to catalysts than aqueous solution of azo-dyes, which is associated with surface steps and sensitization of the reaction rate by presence of other contaminants in real textile wastewater.

Microwave Assisted Synthesis, Characterization and Antifungal Studies of Organosilicon (IV) Complexes Derived From Mixed Azines

Dr. PriyaDuggal,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/6/4/25360

Some novel hexa-coordinated organosilicon (IV) complexes with SiO2N2 skeleton were synthesized by conventional as well as microwave methods by the reaction of diethoxydiphenylsilane with mixed azines. The mixed azine ligands were prepared by conventional as well as microwave methods. The resulting complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR and multinuclear (1H, 13C, 29Si) NMR spectroscopy and molar conductance measurement. The organosilicon (IV) complexes were also screened for their antifungal activity and were found to be quite active in this respect. The basis of this technique is the observation that these reactions proceed much faster and with higher yields under microwave irradiation compared to conventional heating.

Effect of High Tension Line on Nutritional Value and Phytochemical changes in Cluster Bean (Guar) Seeds

Kumar Rajesh and Bhojak N,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/6/4/26167.

High frequency non-ionizing electromagnetic fields that are increasingly present in the environment constitute a genuine environmental stimulus able to evolve specific responses in plants that share many similarities with those observed after a stressful treatment. The mechanism of this interference between EMF and plant tissues is not clearly understood. The present study investigated the effect of non-ionizing radiations on cluster bean (Cyamopis tetragonloba) seeds. The influence of high tension line (HTL) of 220 kV on the nutritional value of guar were determined by quantifying ash, moisture, carbohydrate, protein, fat, fiber and minerals. The antibacterial activities of guar seeds crude extract were determined against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus. The result revealed chemical composition of seeds were found 2.67-4.53% ash, 9.10-11% moisture, 58.80-84.67% carbohydrate, 27-33.28% protein and 10.73-11.10% fiber. While Minerals content (in ppm) were found 336-653 sodium,370-465 iron, 15.33-1977 calcium, 61-67.33 zinc and 9.47-11.40 copper. The total available carbohydrates as mannose and galactose were ranged 65-72% and 28-35% respectively. Ratio of mannose to galactose is 2:1.

Classification, Properties and Characterization of Fly Ash ICCL Chowdhar and RSP, CPP I

Trinath Biswall, R. B. Panda, Rabiranjan Prusty,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/6/4/26979.

In recent years, attempts to increase the utilization of fly ash as a replacement for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in concrete have increased in significance. In India the present availability of fly ash produced from coal based thermal power plants has exceeded 130 million tons and likely to increase in coming years1,2. The utilization of fly ashes needs to be increased to manage this waste stream, which is possible by understanding the geotechnical and geo-environmental behaviour of fly ash. This paper presents the findings of experimental studies with regard to important physical, chemical and geotechnical properties like grain size, specific gravity, mineralogy, morphology, compaction characteristics, unconfined compressive strength, California bearing ratio and hydraulic conductivity of fly ash3,4. Two low lime fly ashes from Indian Charge Chrome Limited, Chowdhar (ICCL) and, Rourkela Steel Plant, Captive Power plant I (RSP, CPI) thermal power plants, in and around Orissa have been used in the study. A brief account of various methods adopted in characterization is presented here. The importance of these properties in increasing the bulk utilization of fly ashes has also been brought out.

Synthesis of copper nanoparticles mediated Musanga cecropioides leaf extract and their application in the degradation of organic dyes

Francois Eya’ane Meva, Jean Claude Ndom, Andre Wanlao Yonga, Agnes Antoinette Ntoumba, Phillipe Belle Ebanda Kedi, Rudy-Evrard Njike Loudang, Marcelle Loretta Segnou, Roland Emmanuel Mang, Joel Olivier Avom Mbeng, Emmanuel Albert Mpondo Mpondo, Luc Meva’a Mbaze,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/6/4/28090.

Development of green nanotechnology is making the interest of researchers towards biosynthesis of nanoparticles. In this work, copper oxides nanoparticles were synthesized from the aqueous leaf extract of Musanga cecropioides. The formation of the nanoparticles was proven by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy analysis. Infrared spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region of the synthesized copper nanoparticles provide evidence of the creation of chemical bonds with molecules of the plant leaf extract. The catalytic activity of copper nanoparticles was demonstrated on textiles colorants such as methylene blue, eosyne Y and methyl orange. The degradation efficacity of the copper nanoparticles is high to moderate, been 92.02%, 53.67% and 33.81% for methylene blue, eosyne Y and methyl orange respectively.

Green Chemistry and the twelve principles – Revisited,

Debabrata Pal,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/6/4/29198

The extreme progress of the human civilization in the recent past has been tracked with the rapid development of new chemical technologies and the vast number of new chemical products in the last decades, but as far as sustainability is concerned, it caused a serious negative impact on the environment that turned the attention of the environmentalists to think of remedial actions for the negative impacts (monitoring environmental pollution, reduction of pollutants, recycling, etc). Essentially, the most effective way to reduce the negative impacts is to design and innovation in the manufacturing processes, taking into account energy, materials, atom economy, and finally the life cycle of the products and their practical recycling into new materials. Green chemistry is the utilization of a set of principles that will help reduce the use and generation of hazardous substances during the manufacture and application of chemical products. Green chemistry aims to protect the environment not by cleaning up, but by inventing new chemical processes that do not pollute. It is a rapidly developing and an important area in the chemical sciences and also going to play the major role in the sustainability of the mankind in the future.

Assessment of Quality of Groundwater Surrounding Landfill Sites in Kanpur City, Uttar Pradesh, India

Satish Chandra Dixit*, Anshul Gupta and Sudhir Tripathi,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/6/4/29905.

The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of the municipal solid wastes (MSW) landfill sites/open dump sites on the quality of the surrounding groundwater. Eight sampling sites were undertaken for the present studies. Values of pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate, sulphate, chloride and magnesium are within the prescribed limits of BIS: 2012 and WHO:2011. The values of Na+ and K+ are also not high except Panki MSW dumping area where the value of Na+ is high. Nitrite is absent. Values of dissolved oxygen are also good in majority of the sites. Values of total dissolved solids of all the groundwater sampling sites are within the prescribed limit of BIS: 2012. It is observed that impact of MSW landfill sites/open dumping ground is more or less negligible on the surrounding groundwater quality of deep boring and as the distance from the MSW site increases, its impact on the surrounding groundwater quality decreases.

Prevalence of Aggressive and hyperactivity: Results from lead poisoned children in Sudan

Fatima A. B. Abdalla, Hythem S. A. Saeed, Abdel Rouf A. Abbas, Abdelmonem M. Abdellah, Abdel Azim A. Ahmed,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/6/4/30611

Long-term exposure to air lead pollution affects school children behavior and health growth. This study aimed to highlight the expected effect of lead contamination on school children activity and behavior. A total of 161participants, which their ages ranged between 6-17 years old, were randomly selected from different cities of Sudan, in which 122 samples were taken as exposed group and 39 as un-exposed (control). Blood lead concentration was determined by NIOSH method using atomic absorption spectrometer. Biochemical parameters were measured in blood serum using standard methods. Data was collected with the aid of writing a questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS program. Result revealed that the highest lead levels were found in blood serum of children that their school adjacent to high traffic roads with lead levels enough to affect children activity and behavior. In general, higher lead levels were found to be in male rather than female. The study suggested that children schools should be built far from high traffic roads

Effect of Modified Panchagavyam on Growth of Vigna radiata- A Biochemical Approach

Dr. D. Brindha, Dr. M. Santhosh kumar, Dr. R. Santhi, Ms. M. Kaviya and Mr. M. Vigneshkumar,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/6/4/31216

Organic farming has developed very rapidly in recent years and has gained importance in maintaining the dynamic soil nutrient. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of a modified panchagavyam on the physical and biochemical parameters of Vigna radiata. The results of the study revealed that there was an optimal increase in physical parameters (13% increase in shoot and 22% increase in root length). The biochemical parameters (29% carbohydrate, 71% reducing sugar, 49% free aminoacids, 71 % chlorophyll, 23% carotenoids) were also found to be increased. The enzymic and non enzymic antioxidants (45% phenols, 36% tannins, 23% of flavonoids, 23% steroids, 29% catalase and 23% GST) were also noticed to be remarkably increased when compared with that of control and urea treated plants