Research Paper in Green Chemistry

The GC-MS Analysis of leaf extracts of a Medicinal Plant, Anisotes trisulcus (Forrsk.)

Abdo A.Khurgain, Zeyad Ahmed Dahan and G. Gyananath,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/1/00109

Anisotes trisulcus (Forrsk) is one of the richest families with medicinal plants. The phytochemical screening of this plant has resulted in several important constituents having medicinal properties. Therefore, the present study deals with the Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy analysis of Anisotes trisulcus (F.). The results indicated the presence of some important biomolecules such as Flurandrenolide, Cyclotrisiloxane,hexapheny l- ,Cholestano [7,8a]cyclobutane, and 3-methoxy-6-oxo-2-methyl en e which hav e medicinal values.

Quantitative Phytochemical Estimation and GC-MS studies in Ethanolic Root Extracts of Boerhavia diffusa

A.Shanmugapriya* and S.Maneemegalai,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/1/01016

Plant and plant based medicines are the basis of the modern pharmaceuticals, we use today for our various ailments. In the present study, the ethanolic root extracts of Boerhavia diffusa were quantified for the presence of important Secondary metabolites such as total phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids.The root extract is richly endowed with Phenols andFlavonoids which function as reducing agents and free radical scavengers against oxidative damage that leads to various degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, inflammation and cancer.GC-MS (Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry) analysis of the root extract was carried out to screen the phytochemical compounds responsible for medicinal activity. The overall study reveals the presence of 4H-Pyran-4-One, 2,3-Dihydro-3,5-Dihydroxy-6-Methyl, 3,7,11,15-Tetramethyl-2-Hexadecen-1-Ol, N-Hexadecanoic Acid, 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic Acid, Methyl Ester, Phytol Isomer, 9,12-Octadecadienoic Acid, 2-Hexadecen-1-Ol, N-Hexadecanoic Acid,1,2Benzenedicarboxylic acid. The results of this study will provide a new avenue in using Boerhavia diffusa root as herbal alternative for various diseases

Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Potent Antifungal Bis-Heterocyclic Chalcone from N-Phenyl Substituted Succinamide

S.S.Patole, Dr.S.S.Rajput,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/1/01725

In this work we developed new method of synthesis for reported synthesis bis-heterocyclic chalcone by conventional method. In this new method N-phenyl substituted succinamide5 allowed to react with substituted benazaldehydes 6a-e in presence of neutral alumina in microwave oven as solid phase solvent free condition afforded bis-heterocyclic chalcone7a-e. The structures of all synthesized compounds were confirmed by FT IR, 1HNMR Spectral analysis. The bis-heterocyclic chalcones were screened for microbial evaluation in vitro by disc diffusion method.The anti-microbial activity have tested against pathogenic bacteria E.Coli and fungi C.albicans at minimum inhibitory concentration 100 μgm/ml among all chalcone derivatives the compound 7a exhibited promising antibacterial activity and potent antifungal activity

Study on Quality of Soil: Part-I. Simultaneous Determination of Trace Metals Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in Soil Samples of Bhavnagar by Electrochemical Tecnhnique

C. J. Patil, Manisha C. Patil and Mrunmayee C. Pati,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/1/02634.

An accurate analytical procedure has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the toxic trace metals Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in soil samples from Bhavnagar and surrounding area, employing electrochemical techniques viz. square wave (SWV), differential pulse polarographic (DPP) and anodic stripping voltammetric (DP-ASV) techniques at hanging mercury drop electrode(HMDE). Five samples were collected from Bhavnagar and surrounding area during the period of March 2016. Based on the pressurized wet digestion of the finely powdered soil sample in a mixture of HNO3-HCl, also followed by UV-irradiation, before the direct analysis- to eliminate the interference effect of dissolved organic compounds, was used to prepare the analyte for the voltammetric analysis. Thus metals were made free from any dissolved organics-interference and hence available for the analysis. The applicability of the method has been proved by the analysis of the soil samples from various polluated and civil (unpolluated area). Accuracy is verified by employing atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Simultaneous determination-by the polarographic and voltammetric method for the studied four metals and calculation of concentration level of each metal ion in the collected samples was studied. The results and conclusions were discussed

Green synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of N-aryl cyclic imides using silica bound benzyl chloride mediated solid phase synthesis

Milind M. Patil, Shankarsing S. Rajput,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/1/03546

method for adopting a solid-phase strategy for the synthesis of N-substituted succinimides and glutarimides is described here; using the silica-bound benzoyl chloride mediated solid phase synthesis. We have optimized and used a simple silica bound benzyl chloride as a dehydrating agent in cyclisation reaction with N-aryl immic acids by cyclodehydration. The main advantage of this method is the silica-grafted reagent was simply recovered after the reaction and reused several times made this method as the environmental benign chemical method of synthesis of N-aryl cyclic imides.

Potential Role of Glucosinolates in Terms of Human Health

Nidhi Agarwal, Pramod K. Raghav and Anshu Sharma,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/1/04753.

Glucosinolates are the secondary metabolites found primarily in the plants of Cruciferae family which contain nitrogen and sulphur as their constituents. They are responsible for the defence mechanism in these plants against biotic and abiotic stresses and they also serve as repellents against various pests. Based on their functional group of amino acids precursor methionine, phenylalanine and tryptophan, they are classified into three major groups such as aliphatic, indole and aromatic glucosinolates respectively. Glucosinolates are hydrolyzed by myrosinases to yield various degradation products like isothiocyanates and nitriles. The glucosinolates and its derivatives have a wide range of biological functions such as antinutritional effects of seed meal in animals, fungal disease suppression, insects pest repellent and anticarcinogenic properties in humans. However, it also acts as goitrogenic, if it is consumed more than it is recommended, either by interfering with the functioning of thyroid gland or by competing with the uptake of iodine by thyroid gland

Comparative study of heavy metal pollution in road side soil of Sarona and New Raipur highway at District Raipur in Chhattisgarh

Tejaswini Reddy, Beena Sharma and Amit Dubey,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/1/05461.

In the present study to assess the roadside soil contamination with Zn, Pb, & Cr, soil samples were collected along a 5km stretch on the Sarona Highway and New Raipur Highway in District Raipur Chhattisgarh. The samples were analyzed for selected heavy metals by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The mean concentrations of Zn, Pb, & Cr of Sarona Highway were 212.83, 75.50, & 8.16 mg/kg for soil samples indicates the pollution of soil with chromium had low risk and had considerable high risk from Zinc. Similarly average concentrations of Zn, Pb, & Cr of New Raipur Highway were 299.46, 71.00 & 8.13 mg/kg for soil samples indicates the pollution of soil with chromium had low risk and had considerable high risk from Zinc. The observed concentration of heavy metals decreases with increase in distance from road edge on both the study sites. It can be concluded that soil of Sarona Highway having high traffic density is more polluted with heavy metals than that of New Raipur Highway, comparatively with low traffic density.

Studies of Physical Properties on Molecular Interactions in Binary Liquid Mixtures of 2-Chloroaniline with Ketones at Different Temperatures

G. Praveen chand,bM. Gowrisankar, C. Rambabu,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/1/06294

Density (ρ), viscosity (η), and speed of sound (u) have been measured for the binary mixtures of 2-chloroaniline with acetophenone, cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone over the entire composition range at 303.15, 308.15, 313.15 and 318.15 K. By using this data, the excess molar volumes, excess isentropic compressibility, and deviation in viscosity for the binary systems at the above mentioned temperatures were calculated and fitted to Redlich - Kister polynomial equation to determine the fitting parameters and the root-mean-square deviations. The excess molar volumes, excess isentropic compressibility, deviation in viscosity and excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow have been analyzed in terms of charge-transfer complexes, new H-bonds, and dipole-dipole interaction between unlike molecules. The results obtained for viscosities of binary mixtures were used to test the semi-empirical relations of Grunberg-Nissan, Katti-Chaudhri, and Hind equations.

Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in acid medium using Ulva reticulata Seaweed as Green corrosion Inhibitor

R. Thilagavathi, A. Prithiba and R. Rajalakshmi,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/1/09513

Ulva reticulata seaweed extract was tried as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium using electrochemical impedance, potentiodynamic polarisation and mass loss studies. At optimum concentration, the extract showed appreciable inhibition efficiency. This system obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm and this confirmed the adsorption of the inhibitor on mild steel. The mixed type of the inhibitor was reflected by Potentiodynamic polarization study. The results of electrochemical impedance studies inferred that on increasing concentration of the inhibitor, the charge transfer resistance of the mild steel increased and double layer capacitance decreased. The inhibitive nature of Ulva reticulata seaweed was reaffirmed by surface analytical study.

Characterization of Ground Water Special Reference to Some Heavy Metal around Luni River, Balotra , Barmer, Rajasthan

Sanwal Ram, Dr S K Pramanik, Dr Raviraj Singh, Dr Vimla Chowdhary,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/1/11418.

The present study was carried out with the objective of determining the extent of groundwater pollution caused by industrial activity in balotra, barmer district Rajasran which is located at the bank of Luni river. Groundwater Samples were collected from twenty different places, nearby area of Luni River and analysed for the heavy metals and all results were compared with Indian standard specification for drinking water IS 10500(1991). The study reveals that the concentration of major ions exceeding the permissible limit. Groundwater is unsuitable for human consumption as it contains higher concentration of major ions. Contamination of groundwater causes water scarcity for domestic purpose of this study is to highlight the impact of industrial activity on groundwater

Yield and yield parameters of chickpea varieties unde  different weed population in Thal area of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Aamir Numan, Dr. Niaz Ali, Muhammad Ijaz Khan, Mehmood Ur Rehman and Abdul Qadir,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/1/11929.

An experiment to evaluate yield and yield parameters of gram varieties (Chattan and Fahr-e-Thal, Sheen Ghar, KK-1, KK-2) under weeds population was conducted at Agriculture Research station Ahmad Wala Karak during 2014-15. Five treatments were used for evaluation of plant height, numbers of pods per plant, weeds biomass, 100 grain weight, grain yield and cost benefit ratio. The data revealed that treatment and interaction significantly affected all the parameters. Varieties also reach to the level of significant. Two times hand weeding showed significant result in all parameters and was good, suitable, beneficial, and economical for the control of weeds in gram crops. Highest yield of 1392 kg/acre was obtained by two time weeding while lowest yield 869 kg/acre was noted in control. Cost benefit ration also showed that two time weeding is more economical than rest of the treatments. Variety Chattan gave maximum mean yield of 1195 kg/acre while Fakhr-e-Thal gave lowest mean yield of 1121 6 kg/acre

Synthesis of a new Schiff base of o-phenylenediamine and evaluation of its anticancer and antibacterial activity

S.L.Sathya Saibaba, P. Karthiga and K. Swarnalatha,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/1/13042

Schiff base of o-phenylenediamine was synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, 1H-NMR, ESI-Mass, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The antibacterial activity of the Schiff base was screened against four Gram-positive bacteria, viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, streptococcus pneumonia and six Gram-negative bacteria viz. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi and Salmonella enteric serotype. Anticancer activity of the compound was studied in vitro against two cancer cell lines, human colon adenocarcinoma cancer cell (HT-29) and human breast cancer cell (MCF-7) using the MTT assay. The results demonstrated that treatment with the synthesized compound affected cell viability efficiently towards both HT-29 and
MCF-7 cells.

Synthesis and characterization of magnetite nanoparticles using betel leaves

Ravindra D. Kale, Sangeeta Barwar, Prerana Kane, Sandeep More,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/1/14352

Bio-nanotechnology has emerged as integration between biotechnology and  notechnology for developing biosynthetic and environmental friendly technology for synthesis of nanomaterials. Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by using betel leaves as reducing agent. Reduction of magnetite nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-VIS analysis. Optimization of parameters, temperature and reducing agent concentration was done using RSM as per central composite design (CCD). The nature of the chemical group deposited on the nanoparticles was studied using FT-IR. Particles size estimation was done on TEM and nanoparticle size analyser. The crystallinity of the nanoparticle was found out using XRD.

In vitro Anticancer Antibacterial and Antilarvicidal Activity of Different Solvent Extracts of Annona muricata

S.V.P Easwari, Dr B Vasanthakumari, Dr. N Vijayakumar, Dr. P.A Mary Helen,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/1/15366

The present study was undertaken to investigate the invitro anticancer, antibacterial and larvicidal activity of different solvent extracts of Annona muricata. Colon cancer often occurs for unknown reasons. The cytotoxic activity of fresh chloroform extract of Annona muricata was evaluated on HT 29 colon cancer cell line using neutral red assay method. The 50% inhibition of cell growth (IC50) value of the extract for HT 29 cancer cell line was 100 μg/ml. This result indicated the potential of selective anticancer activity of fresh chloroform extract of Annona muricata leaves. The different extracts showed antibacterial activity against Enterobacter and E.coli with iso amyl alcohol fresh extract showing a zone diameter of 37mm against E.coli and ethyl acetate dark extract showing a zone diameter of 34mm against Enterobacter. The larvicidal activity of fresh aqueous leaf extracts of Annona muricata plant in five different concentration of extract ranging from 2.00 - 10.00 mg/ml showed 100% mortality revealed that the A. muricata extract was highly effective as larvicide against the fourth instar larvae of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti

Pharmacognostical Standardization of Pterygota Alata (Roxb.) Bark

Kshitij Agarwal and Anurekha Jain;

Pharmacognostical Standardization of Pterygota Alata (Roxb.) Bark

Comparative Antibacterial Analysis of Substituted Benzothiazole and Substituted Phenylthiourea Complexes with Copper Meta

Neha Mathur, M.P.Dobhal, Nisha Jain

Comparative Antibacterial Analysis of Substituted Benzothiazole and Substituted Phenylthiourea Complexes with Copper Meta