Research Paper in Green Chemistry

β-Lactam: Part-I. An Overview on Synthesis and Biological Activities of Some Derivatives ofβ-Lactam”

C. J. Patil and Anil H. Shinde,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/2/20121

β-Lactam derivatives possess great importance in medical area. They possess various biological activities such as antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and some of they also possess pharmacological activities like anticonvulsant. Beta-Lactam is very important in penicillin. This review represents some synthesized Beta-Lactam derivatives and focus on their Biological and pharmacological activities.

Assessment of Physicochemical Composition and Nutritional Potential of Five Varieties of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek

Kumari Nirmala, A., J. Anbumalarmathi* and Aruna Sharmili S.,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/2/22229.

Five different varieties of the pulse, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek (viz., CO 8, ADT 3, SML-1082, TM11-07, and TM11-18) were analyzed for the physical properties, functional properties, proximate composition, certain amino acids and phytic acid composition. The major findings of the study were as follows: The hundred seed weight of the green gram varieties was recorded to be 23.9 to 34.7g, bulk density 0.263 to 0.936 w/v, water absorption index 135.6 to 142.1g/100g, water solubility index 17.2 to 22.2 g%. Oil absorption capacity of green gram varieties in ground nut oil was recorded to be 42.1 to 65.2 ml/ 100g and the oil absorption capacity of green gram varieties in gingelly oil was recorded to be 50.3 to 60.2 ml/ 100g. The moisture content were in the range of 9.7 to 13.5 g/100g, ash 4.7 to 6.3 g/100g, fat 3.7 to 5.5 g/100g, protein 4.2 to 8.2mg/100g. Amino acids such as tryptophan was ranged from 0.5 to 0.70 mg/ 100g, methionine 0.16 to 0.82mg/100g and alanine was ranged from 0.03 to 0.16mg / 100g. Phytic acid was ranged from 0.5 to 2.2 mg/ 100g. ADT 3 variety was found to be the best in physical properties. TM11-07 and CO 8 was found to be the best in functional properties. TM11-18 and ADT3 was found to be the best in proximate composition. CO 8 and ADT 3 variety was found to be high in estimated amino acid content. The lowest phytic acid was found in ADT 3. The information on these properties is important for developing new products using green gram flours. ADT 3 and TM11-18 were observed to have good physicochemical characteristics and are hence suitable for further breeding and processing as value added products

A non-extractive spectrophotometric determination of Zirconium with 6-Chloro-3-hydroxy-2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran using propan-1-ol-H2O mixture as solvent

Monika Chawaria and H. K. Sharma,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/2/23036.

A non-extractive spectrophotometric method is developed for the trace determination of zirconium. The method involves the formation of yellow (1:2) complex of zirconium with 6-chloro-3-hydroxy-2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran (CHHPB) in propan-1-ol-H2O medium and shows maximum absorbance at 400 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed in the range 0.0 to 6.0 μg Zr mL-1 with an optimum range of determination as found from Ringbom plot is 1.01-4.46 μg Zr/mL. The molar absorptivity, specific absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity value of 1.780 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1, 0.195 mL g-1 cm-1 and 0.00512 μg Zr(IV) cm-2 at 400 nm , respectively. The linear regression equation is Y = 0.184 X + 0.022 (Y = absorbance, X = μg Zr(IV) mL-1) and the correlation coefficient, r = 0.9992. The detection limit of the method is 0.0013 ppm. The results obtained are highly reproducible with standard deviation of ± 0.0017 absorbance unit. The method is free from the interferences of a large number of important anions/complexing agents and cations. The method has good reproducibility and has been satisfactorily applied to analysis of zirconium in wide variety of samples of varying complexity.

Facile Removal of Congo Red using Mahua (Madhuca longifolia) Seeds, A Low Cost Adsorbent

Roshni Kumari, Soumen Dey,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/2/23750.

Indiscriminate use of dyes in various industrial sectors pollutes water and poses threat to mankind. Since dyes are non bio-degradable under ambient condition, various scavenging technologies were employed from time to time. Mahua fruits offer useful seeds which are found to be a cost effective scavenger of congo red dye from contaminated water. Batch adsorption tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of adsorbent dose (10-90 mg), contact time (10-60 min), agitation speed (100-180 rpm), pH, interference and concentration variation (10-80 ppm) at room temperature. Characterization of Mahua Seeds (MS) was done using FTIR, SEM, proximate analysis and Zero point charge (ZPC). Kinetic study suggested the mechanism follows intra-particle diffusion with R2 value of 0.978 and rate constant of 0.697mg/g.min0.5. Maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 32 mg/g. Isotherm study revealed that Freundlich model is best fit with R2 value of 0.998.The calculated value of ZPC was 7.21. Regeneration was achieved up to 88% with aqueous NaOH. Adsorption thermodynamic data revealed the process to be spontaneous, feasible and exothermic in nature. Column experiments suggest feasibility of the material for large scale operation

Advancement in Research on Delphinium sp. (Renunculaceae): A Review

Bilal Ahmad Dar, Ruhee jan, Mushtaq Ahmad Qurishi,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/2/25159.

The present review is an attempt to gather the research findings on different aspects of an important herbal genus Delphinium, most of the species of which are known as a source of bioactive templates for development as leads in a pragmatic way to explore the possibility of its use as medicinal herb on the worldwide scale (WHO, 2000). Most of the work has been carried out on the phytochemical investigations with some reports on biological activities. The important species of the genus that have been explored include D.staphsagria, D.Carolinianum, D.davisii, D. Cardiopetalum, D.pyrimidale, D.uncinatum, D.hybridium, D.consolidata, D.cashmerianum.

Effects of microwaves over than 200 KHz in the physiology of auditory system: Iraqi case series

Talib Fadhil Abbas,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/2/26064

The microwave auditory effect-Frey effect-, consists of audible clicks induced by pulsed/modulated microwave frequencies. Extremely low frequencies (ELF) is electromagnetic energy occurs naturally or in association with the generation and transmission of electrical power and with the use of power in some appliances. Static magnetic fields can interact with tissues to exert blood flow or nerve impulses conduction which is significant only at high flux density (≥1T), to orient the navigation of bees, fishes, turtles, pigeons, dolphins, and even human, and to generate the free radical and reactive species through the Zeeman effect. Tape recordings made by one victim of the frey effect, the key component for recording such effects is the Sonic Super Ear personal sound amplifier microphone available from Dar-Al-Shrooq for medical suppliers, Baghdad. Analysis the sound episodes of the cassettes affirm the sounds are between voices as harassment to disturb the victim sleep-not clear its origination- and considerable distortion. Other sounds that not to be made by him and intended to harass him at night, resembled radio microwave.  By using the oscillator, we test the victim and microphone with well-known frey microwave 50 KHz, 100KHz and 200KHz. The victim responded noisily like a pad dream by 200 KHz. In order to find out the reason of audible loss and ear failure in urban community, we conducted this case report. Meanwhile, huge distribution of phones, satellite, internet and its purges over the people houses with their various frequencies, increases the risk of pathology and effect the human wellbeing.       

Environmentally Benign Solar degradation of Methylene Blue dye using Green synthesized ZnO Nanoparticle

T. Mary Vergheese, S. Saral Sessal,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/2/26579.

Environmentally benign green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticle using leaf extract of Centella Asiatica towards photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue for the sustainability of the environment is reported in the present work. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) function as photo catalyst in the degradation process. The synthesized catalyst was characterized using UV- Visible spectrometery, XRD, FTIR, GC-MS, FE- SEM and SEM – EDX analytical techniques.  The bio active components and functional groups present in the leaf extract of Centella Asiatica was analysed using GC-MS and FTIR techniques. SEM-EDX and FE- SEM response shows the surface morphology of ZnO NP which resemble flake structured Sea Urchin shaped ZnO NPs with nanometer dimension. The photocatalytic degradation property of ZnO NPs towards the degradation of Methylene Blue (MB) dye with the effect of pH was studied in presence of solar light using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results reveal that the biosynthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles are effective photocatalyst towards dye degradation in presence of solar light. Moreover from the kapp   and degradation efficiency values it was found that the rate of photocatalytic degradation was faster in acidic medium compared to the degradation rate in alkaline and neutral medium

Evaluation of some Arylazo Acetohydrazide Derivatives as Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum in 1 M Hydrochloric Acid Solutions

A.S. Fouda, K. Shalabi, M. M. Bakr,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/2/28099

: The inhibitive behavior of some arylazo acetohydrazide (AAH) derivatives on aluminum in 1 M HCl solution was examined by different methods such as weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization (PP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). AAH compounds act as mixed type inhibitors according to Potentiodynamic polarization results. The results acquired from weight loss method show that the inhibiting behavior of AAH compounds increases with increasing in concentrations and decrease with increasing in temperature. The adsorption isotherm of AAH compounds was found to obey Temkin isotherm. Theoretical data and experimental results are in good correlation

Studies on Synthesis of Aromatic Ketimines: Part-VII. Synthesis of Novel Ketimines – A Comparative Study of Biological Potential in Two Different Solvents

C. J. Patil, Manisha C. Patil, Ankur S. Patil Dhiraj Kolhe Sonali P. Rane and Mrunmayee C. Patil,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/2/30012.

We have reviewed various papers from the literature A conventional condensation reaction of an aromatic ketone, Benzophenone with six different aromatic amines viz. 2-Fluoro aniline, 3-Nitro aniline, 4-Nitro aniline, Aniline, 2-Chloro aniline and 4-Chloro aniline to react efficiently to synthesize a series of Ketimines, BZ-1 to BZ-6, in moderate to high yield and high purity. The reaction was monitored and the products were analyzed by employing the TLC technique. The products were purified by column chromatography. All the products obtained were characterized by their colour, physical constant, TLC, elemental analysis and spectral (UV-Vis and FTIR) method. The synthesized Ketimines were subjected to in-vitro biological activity in two different solvents viz. Ethanol and DMSO. Their results are compared and discussed

The Genus Plumbago: An Update

V. Garg, Jyoti, Rohit dutt,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/2/31326

The family Plumbaginaceae consists of 10 genera and 280 species.  The genus Plumbago includes 55 plants. Some plants are common like Plumbago aphylla Bojer Ex Bioss, P. auriculata Lam (P.capensis), P. caerulea Kunth, P. wissii Friedrich, P. europaea L, P.  indica L (P. rosea), P.  pulchella Bioss, P.  zeylanica L. Out of these eight species of Plumbago,  P. zeylanica, P. indica and P. auriculata are very common. P. zeylanica is broadly used for commercial preparation of medicines due to its biological activities. Literature review on Genus Plumbago has been compiled using references from major databases such as Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, Pub-Med, Science direct, Scifinder, Springer, Phyto-chemical and Ethano-botany database. The available information on Plumbago has been divided into six sections, that is, distribution, morphology, macroscopy, microscopy,  phyto-constituents, ethno-pharmacology, pharmacological studies, covering prominent species i.e. P. zeylanica,  P. indica, P. auriculata.

Bio sorption of Copper (II) ions from aqueous solution by dry biomass of Amaltas [Cassia Fistula]

Deepti Rangnani,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/2/32734

Metal contamination issues are becoming increasing day by day common in India and elsewhere with many documented cases of metal toxicity in mining industries, foundries, smelters, coal-burning power plants and agriculture. Heavy metals such as Cr, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb are major environment pollutants therefore it is necessary to treat metal contaminated waste water prior to its discharge to the environment. The absorption process is being widely used by various researchers for the removal of heavy metals from waste streams. Adsorption is suitable even when the metal ions are present in concentration as low as 1 mg/l. The adsorbent may be of mineral, organic or biological origin, zeolites, industrial by product, agricultural waste, biomass and polymeric materials. In the present study dry biomass of Amaltas [cassia fistula] is used as adsorbent to study the process of bio sorption. The cell walls of dry biomass consist of cellulose, lignin, carbohydrate which have hydroxyl group in their structure and could be good adsorbent for contamination. Metal uptake is believed to occur through sorption process involving carboxylic and phenolic functional groups which result in formation of surface complexation mechanism between metal ions and lignocellulosic adsorbents.

Studies on Synthesis of Aldimines: Part-II↑. Comparison of the products of conventional and green chemical synthesis and biological activity evaluation

C. J. Patil1 Manisha Patil, C. A. Nehete,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/2/33542.

Compounds containing >C=N- (azomethine) were prepared from Benzaldehyde with Aniline and o-Hydroxy-Acetophenone with o-Nitro-Aniline respectively by conventional and green chemical synthesis microwave technique. The products are tested in process and the completion of reaction is ascertain by TLC. The final products were characterized by analytical viz. TLC, physical viz. m.p., Instrumental viz. UV-Vis and FTIR spectral techniques. Their biological activities were also evaluated.

Molecular structure and electrostatic properties of high energetic 2, 4, 6-Trinitropyridine N-oxide molecule using DFT Method

B. Amudhavalli, M. Prasath, P. Srinivasan and A. David Stephen,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/2/34350.

The Structural and bond topological and electrostatic properties of 2,4,6-Trinitropyridine N-oxide molecule have been studied using the DFT and AIM analysis. The optimized (B3LYP/6-311G** and B3LYP/aug-cc-PVDZ) geometric parameters are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. The TNPyO molecule C–NO2 and N–O (N-oxide) bonds are weak, which confirms that these bonds are the weakest bonds in the molecule. Further, the TNPyO molecule reveals negative oxygen balance (-0.86%) and its energy gap is 3.45 eV. The MEP map shows that the negative potential sites are on electronegative atoms while the positive potential sites are around the hydrogen atoms. These observations give an insight on this kind of explosive material, which are useful to design navel explosives molecules.

Extraction of Lignin from Puling Black Liquors of Leucaena Leucocephala

Dr Hemlata Raikwar, Dr.Anita Choubey,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/2/35154

Black liquor is the major by-product and fuel of pulp mills. The Kraft extraction is a mature, effective technology that provides for recycling of the pulping chemical, efficient generation of steam and electrical power from the value of the black liquor and effective disposal of disposal of dissolved wood substances. The process how faces significant challenges with respect to air emissions, effluent discharge and need for improved energy recovery and utilization means for dealing with these uses available ,but they can costly new technology may result in significant energy benefits.

Antibacterial Activity of Some Cinnamo Hydroxamic Acid and Their Derivatives

Surendra K. Rajput, Kishor N. Bapat, Anita Patel and Deepak Sinha,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/2/35560

Newly synthesized cinnamo hydroxamic acid (CHA) and their derivatives like N-methyl cinnamo hydroxamic acid (MCHA), N-benzyl cinnamo hydroxamic acid (N-BCHA), p-methyl benzyl cinnamo hydroxamic acid (p-CH3BCHA) and p-chloro benzyl cinnamo hydroxamic acid (p-ClBCHA) were synthesized method followed by the Priya Darshini and Tondon. Their characterization done by the standard spectroscopic method 1HNMR (SAIF Punjab University), IR spectroscopy (Gujarat University Ahmedabad, Gujarat) and elemental analysis (CIL Punjab University). Paper disc agar plate method is very sensitive for the determination of antibacterial activity of cinnamo hydroxamic acid and their derivatives against two bacterial strains Bacillus Licheniformis and Enterococcus Faecalis.The bacterial cell growth maximum zone of inhibition of cinnamo hydroxamic acid derivatives (CHA, MCHA, N-BCHA, p-CH3BCHA,p-ClBCHA) for Bacillus Licheniformis are 13.06 mm, 4.90 mm, 5.23 mm, 7.86 mm, 8.16 mm and for Enterococcus Faecalis are 6.20 mm, 7.90 mm, 4.70 mm, 5.66 mm, 11.83 mm, at 500 ppm concentration. Detailed antibacterial testing shown, that these compounds are good cell growth of inhibition by the study of antibacterial activity against Bacillus Licheniformis and Enterococcus Faecalis bacterial strains (CCOST Raipur C.G.).

The Study of Inhibitory Effect of Some Amino acids on Corrosion of 60/40 Brass in Nitric Acid

M. B. Mahida, H. G. Chaudhari M. H. Metawala,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/2/36172

The inhibitive effects of amino acids like, glycine, L-leucine, L-glutamic acid, L-histidine and L-aspartic acid against the corrosion of brass in nitric acid solution have been studied using weight-loss and electrochemical polarization measurements. The efficiency of the inhibitors increases with increase of inhibitor concentration. All the amino acid studied, were good in their inhibition action. The inhibition efficiency of the amino acids increases in the order, L-histidine> L-aspartic acid > L-glutamic acid > L-leucine> glycine. The potentiodynamic polarization studies reveal that the amino acids act as mixed type inhibitor. The adsorption of these compounds on brass surface follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The negative values of Qads and Gads supports spontaneous adsorption of the amino acids

A simple and green synthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles using Gloriosa superba leaves extract

G. Venkateswara rao, G. Satya Sree, B. Sathish Mohan and R. Balaji Anjaneyulu,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/2/37378

In this paper, a simple and green approach for the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using Gloriosa superba leaves extract. The prepared ZnO nanoparticles was studied their structural and morphological properties using XRD, FTIR, UV-DRS and FESEM-EDS. XRD patterns reveal the formation of ZnO with pure phase of 101. UV-DRS spectra shown the bandgap of synthesized nanoparticles was estimated to be 3.22 eV. FESEM images confirm the prepared ZnO NPs have fibril shape like. The EDS analysis confirms the presence of elements like Zn and O in ZnO NPs

Development of Mint (Mentha viridis L.) Herbal Edible Coating for Shelf Life Enhancement of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

Pramod K. Raghav & Mitu Saini,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/2/37991

In the present research the corn starch and mint (Mentha viridis L.) extract herbal edible coating was applied on fresh cucumbers for enhancement of their shelf life and quality stored at room temperature and low temperature i.e. 25°C and 10°C. The corn starch has good moisture and gases barrier properties while mint extract acted as an antimicrobial agent in this herbal edible coating therefore herbal edible coated cucumbers have long shelf life as compared to uncoated cucumbers. The weight loss of coated cucumbers was significantly (p<0.05) less as compared to uncoated cucumbers. The other quality parameters such as appearance, firmness, pH and titratable acidity were also analysed and it was found that herbal edible coated cucumbers were better as compared to uncoated cucumbers. Sensory evaluation of herbal edible coated cucumbers such as taste, color, appearance, texture, flavor and overall acceptability was better at low temperature (10°C) and room temperature (25°C) stored at 12 days as compared to uncoated same days

Efficient Removal of Malachite Green using Saal (Shorea robusta) Flower from Contaminated Water

Banashree Dey, Lily Dipty and Soumen De,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/2/39205

Effectiveness of dye adsorption from wastewaters using agricultural waste material has made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment methods. Here we report efficient and ecofriendly removal of toxic malachite green (MG) dye from contaminated water using Saal (Shorea robusta) Flower (SF) as an adsorbent. Batch studies were performed with respect to various parameters like initial pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, initial concentration, kinetics and temperature on the removal of MG. Maximum adsorption coefficient was found to be 15 mg/g The pseudo-first-order model represented the adsorption kinetics and adsorption process follows Langmuir model. Langmuir adsorption model was followed with R2 value 0.99. Column experiment shows that 1g of SF can detoxify 3 L of 5 ppm dye contaminated water. This opens up a new dimension towards field application in a low cost manner.

Solid Waste Disposal Design at Source Level in Domestic and Commercial Areas

Senthil kumar V.,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/2/40610

India is a country with a large number of urbanized states in it. In India, Tamilnadu state is also facing a challenge of providing essential infrastructure in urban centres to keep pace with population growth due to the drastic development in Agricultural, business and housing sectors heavy solid waste is generated and accumulated each and every year. In order to reduce this futuristic problem all solid wastes are collected and disposal methods are done. Waste generated and storage disposal method for the solid waste is designed and wastes are recycled as manure. Segregation, reuse and recycling at household level and commercial level are achieved by this disposal design. Due to this design the dumping is minimised and land pollution and bad odour from disposal yard is reduced. Adopting the disposal design in solid waste management system in household and commercial level, a gradual reduce in health problems, sanitation and environmental hazards.

Role of Leucaena Leucocephala (Subabul) In Kraft/Soda Pulping

Hemlata Raikwar and Anita Chouwey,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/2/41123.

Paper consumption is increasing day by day due to standard way of living as it is used in hands cleaning, printing, in newspaper, books, wrapping and packaging of materials and so on. Kraft/soda pulping is a process of delignification in which lignin is removed from wood while leaving cellulose fibres intact. Pulping was done through a Kraft delignification process, in which sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphide was used to chemically remove lignin. In the present study, chemical composition of Leucaena leucocephala pulp was noticed as holocellulose (49.71%), pentosan (11.18%), xylan (10-30%), acid soluble lignin (24.26%), acid insoluble lignin (25.35%), resins (<1%) and other hydrocarbons (<1%). From the results, Holocellulose and pentosan estimation was noticed in the proximate chemical analysis of Leucaena leucocephala and holocellulose was found to be 49.71%, pentosan was found to be 11.18% and lignin was obtained 24.26% in raw material of Leucaena leucocephala. Finally, it is concluded that the kraft pulping process can be utilized to individualize cellulosic fibers and to remove lignin by white liquor in which main components are sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide. It is well known process to produce high strength paper

Green Synthesis of Polymer Blend impregnated with silver nanoparticles in Euterpe Oleracea dispersive medium

Bianca Pizzorno Backx, Julia Corrêa dos Santos Santana

Recent researches have shown that different types of metal nanoparticles, especially silver, have antimicrobial activity. This study was based on green synthesis of silver nanoparticles, using vegetal extract of Euterpe Oleracea as a dispersive medium. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) dispersion were studied in polymer blends produced with Euterpe Oleracea extract through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and characterization by Uv-visible spectroscopy (Uv-vis).