Research Paper in Green Chemistry

Nutritional and therapeutic value of rice bran

Manali Chakraborty, Savita Budhwar, Pooja and Vinod,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/3/45161

Agro wastes are one of the major sources for nutritional and therapeutic purpose. A huge amount of milling by-products are generated in industries and used mostly in livestock feed. High level nutritional components, such as vitamins, minerals, fat, protein, fiber along with therapeutic properties, viz. anti-oxidant properties, antimicrobial activities, anti-tumor effects etc are very much crucial in case of managing and treating the life risking disease conditions like, diabetes, hypertension, degenerative diseases, cancer and so many. Rice is the majorly produced crop in Asian countries, especially India, Bangladesh. In the rice milling industries production of bran, broken parts are noticeable. According many studies, this bran portion is highly nutritive and should be utilized for human consumption and disease therapy. Though it contains anti-nutritional factors, such as trypsin inhibitor, phytinetc, it is manageable and has been proven to be a great source to combat malnourished condition in upcoming future. In this review, detailed study of nutritional breakdown of rice bran and its therapeutic significance might be cooperative to understand and go on with further steps for human-fed and treatment concern.

Current research for targeting fluorescent “turn-on” detection of palladium species in various approaches

Koushik Dhara, DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/3/46268

Palladium, a transition metal, is used in various fields, such as automobile and electronics manufacture, medicine, jewelry making, drug synthesis and in synthesis of organic chemicals for research interest. Palladium is used as a key catalyst in the Kumada, Heck, Suzuki, Sonogashira, and Buchwald–Hartwig reactions in the field of organic synthesis. Thus, the wide range of applications make the environmental contamination with palladium species. Also the human body system is being contaminated with the palladium species through the consumption of palladium impurity during the uptake of drugs. Recent studies have showed that even a small dose of palladium ions can cause an allergic reaction inBody system. Therefore, an efficient method must be developed to detect palladium ions in the environment and in biological systems too. This review deals with the recent reports of various fluorescent probes that showed a “turn-on” response due to palladium ions and their mechanistic way for selective detection. This will help to understand the fascinating role of palladium ions in further.

A Novel Assent for Synthesis of Pyrazoline Derivatives by adopting Graphene Oxide Nanosheets as carbocatalyst at reflux condition

D.R. Munde R. P. Kagne, V.G. Kalalawe, S.J. Manegawade S.N. Niwadange,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/3/46976.

A novel route was amended for synthesis of 1,3,5- trisustituted pyrazoline derivatives from substituted chalcones and phenyl hydrazine or hydrazine hydrate in ethanol by using Graphene oxide nanosheets as a heterogenous carbocatalyst at reflux condition.The reaction protocol gave 1,3,5-trisubstituted-2-pyrazolines in good yields via a one-pot addition cyclocondensation between aryl hydrazines and chalcones. The catalyst may be reused without showing much loss in the catalytic activity.The synthesized compounds were confirmed by their spectral data analysis

Determination of minimum effective concentration of honey that optimizes larval growth and silk production in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

R. Madhavi, S. Arivoli and S. Siva Prasad,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/3/47788

The study deals with the determination of minimum effective concentration (MEC) of honey that optimally reinforces Bombyx mori larval growth and silk production. The methodology is based on impact analysis of honey-enriched mulberry diet on larval growth parameters like body weight (BW), body length (BL) and body perimeter (BPM) and silk productivity parameters like gland-body ratio (GBR) and silk gland proteins (SGP)at five different concentrations (5%, 4%, 3%, 2%,1%) of honey. The instar-wise and day-wise growth trends were analyzed respectively by overall growth rates (OGRs) and compound periodical growth rates (CPGRs). Of all, 2% honey elicited maximal response in all parameters. Compared to respective zero dose controls, OGR of BW, BL and BPM grew additionally by 33.0, 10.0 and 11.0 percentile points in third instar, 20.0, 9.3 and 4.0 percentile points in fourth instar and 8.3, 5.0 and 9.0 percentile points in fifth instar. Similarly, CPGR of BW, BL and BPM grew additionally by 19.3,3.5 and 3.9 percentile points in third instar, 3.6, 2.7 and 1.2 percentile points in fourth instar and 0.46, 0.55 and 0.69 percentile points in fifth instar. Likewise, OGR of GBR and SGP were boosted by 28.0 and 122 percentile points and CPGR by 1.4 and 6.4 percentile points. Hence, 2% honey in distilled water is recommended as the potential MEC that positively modulates larval growth and sericultural productivity. The study further indicates that maximal sericultural output could be reaped by feeding silkworm larvae with honey-enriched mulberry leaf from third instar onwards.

Synthesis, characterization and antifungal activity of p-CH3 benzyl and p-Cl benzyl Cinnamo Hydroxamic acids

Anita Patel, Surendra K. Rajput, Kishor N. Bapat and Deepak Sinha,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/3/48999

Synthesis of p-CH3 benzyl and p-Cl benzyl cinnamohydroxamic acids were prepared by the coupling reaction between p-methyl benzyl hydroxyl amine, and p-Cl benzyl hydroxyl amine with cinnamoyl chloride. Their characterization was done by the standard spectroscopic method 1HNMR, IR spectroscopic study and Elemental analysis. The promising biology and medicinal application potential of p-methyl benzyl and p-Cl benzyl cinnamohydroxamic acids prompted us to investigate antifungal activity of p-methyl benzyl and p-Cl benzyl cinnamohydroxamic acids against two fungal strains Penicilliumgriseofulvum, Fusariumsolani, by the paper disc agar plate method. The fungal cell growth zone of inhibition by these compounds p-CH3BCHA and p-ClBCHA are found for Penicilliumgriseofulvum are 15.68 mm, 17.00 mm and for Fusariumsolani are 18.90 mm, 16.23 mm, at higher concentration 1000 ppm respectively. Detailed antifungal testing shown that these compounds are good cell growth of inhibition by the study of antifungal activities against two fungal strains i.e. Penicilliumgriseofulvum and Fusariumsolani.

Mosquito repellent activity of herbal formulation prepared from leaves of Croton bonplandianum

Vyas Seema, Jain Deeksha, Anand Priya, Mali M.C and Bhojak N.,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/3/50004

The present p aper describes potential application of four different formulations prepared from the leaves of Croton bonplandianum on female mosquitoes of Anopheles stephensi. Net and bottled technique was developed for testing of antimosquito activity of different paste obtained from the leaves of Croton bonplandianum. Four herbal formulations were prepared using different pastes obtained from leaves of Croton bonplandianum. In typical preparation of herbal formulation 1 to 5% weight by volume ratio of leaf paste waste taken in the same material in which paste was prepared and it was standardized and or optimized. Number of mosquito dead were counted after every half an hour. At first half 5 hour and at ten hour, each experiment was repeated twice. It has been found that maximum repellent activity is observed with til oil formulation for pastes obtained from leaves of Croton bonplandianum

Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of Hygrophila schulli (Buch.-Ham.) M.R. Almeida & S.M. Almeida

Murugan S and Kumar G.V.,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/3/50512.

Medicinal plants being the effective sources of both traditional and modern medicines are genuinely useful for primary health care system. In the present study the various parts of potential medicinal plant Hygrophila schulli (Buch.-Ham.) M.R. Almeida & S.M. Almeida belonging to the family Acanthaceae was subjected for phytochemical screening and evaluation of Antibacterial Activity. Phytochemical screening was studied using different solvent systems like petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Various phytochemicals such as steroids, terpenoids, sugar, alkaloid, phenolic group, flavanoid, saponin, tannin, Anthraquinone, volatile oils, quinone and coumarin were detected from leaf, stem and root extract of H. schulli in different solvent extract. Antibacterial activity of this plant was tested against four human pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis (Gram positive bacteria); Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram negative bacteria) were investigated in the present study. The antibacterial susceptibility was determined by using disc diffusion method. It was observed that the plant parts of H. schulli showed great antibacterial activity against the human pathogens Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis where high zone of inhibition was observed and less activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The result suggests that this plant do have different phytocomponents and shows maximum antibacterial activity against Gram Negative bacteria.

Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles (Fenp’s) and Characterization of Macrotyloma Uniflorum Seed Extract

M.Suriyavathana, KJ. Janeesha, M. Manikandan, M. Sandhya and K. Ashok Ram,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/3/51319

Macrotyloma uniflorum (M.uniflorum) is a food legume and excellent medicinal remedial properties in Ayurveda. In spite of nutritional food, M. uniflorum seeds are excellent nutraceutical values than other crops, this legume highly rich in proteins and benefited. The characterization (FTIR, UV-Vis and SEM) demonstrated the presence of various phytoconstituents in ethanolic crude extract and aqueous green synthesis of M.uniflorum seed. Crude extracts of seed exhibited more diverse constituents when compared to green synthesized aqueous seed extracts, but some constituents were similar in both.

One Pot four Component MCR Synthesis of Novel Pyrazolo Pyranopyrimidine derivatives using DBU in Aquous media

Ashok R.Karad, Navanand B. Wadwale, Gopinath S Khansole, Vijay N. Bhosale,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/3/52028

Novel pyrazolo pyranopyrimidine derivatives containing both pyranopyrimidine and pyranopyrazole moieties having significant pharmacological activities are synthesized with the help of eco-friendly one pot four component reaction involving Ethyl acetoacetate, Phenyl hydrazine, Barbituric acid and substituted Aromatic aldehydes by using (DBU) as an efficient and mild catalyst in aquous media It gives excellent yield over short reaction time and simple work-up procedure.

Amelioration of therapeutic potential of Moringa oleifera leaves through value added products development

Anees F. Rizvi, Qamar F. Rizvi, Dharmendra Kumar, Vinita Puranik, Niraj Kumar and D. K. Chauhan,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/3/52940.

Moringa oleifera is promising as a food source in the tropics because the Moringa leaves have been used to combat malnutrition, especially among infants and nursing mothers as it is a rich source of protein, calcium, iron and vitamin A. Its various parts have been utilized since a very long time as food and medicine. Asserting its multi-faceted value, the plant is utilized for its highly nutritive, medicinal, and water purification properties. Leaves can be eaten fresh, cooked, or stored as dried powder for many months without refrigeration, and reportedly without loss of nutritional value. In view of the nutritious aspects of moringa leaves, the powder can be used in place of fresh leaves to be incorporated into food product to utilize it in the development of value added product and also the product developed is to raise the awareness among the people of Shankargarh and motivate them to increase its cultivation. The present study recommends the prospect of more aggressive introduction and utilization of drumstick leaves by the food sector. The moringa leaf powder is used to incorporate it into guava juice for the development of guava jelly. The jelly of Guava, blended with Moringa leaves extract is developed in 13 combinations and jelly combination with 8.5g leaf extract was found to be optimum. The addition of moringa leaf powder not only increases the nutritive value of jelly but also increases the shelf life of jelly

Biofuel power of bioethanol obtained by enzymatic biocatalysis from cashew apple bagasse with Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

V. Gbohaïda, C. S. Kouwanou, P. C. D. Agbangnan, S. E. Adjou, F. Avlessi, K. C. D. Sohounhloué,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/3/54150.

Cashew apples, crop residues, constitute a potential source of polysaccharides, very available and less valued in Benin. The present work aims at valorising agro-industrial residues and reducing post-harvest losses through the evaluation of their bio fuel potentialité. For doing this, pressing residues of cashew apples collected in Benin central have undergone enzymatic hydrolysis with a view to a bioethanol bioconversion by fermentation in presence of yeasts: Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis. Monitoring of the release of sugars, phenolic compounds and the Brix degree and some optimization parameters have allowed to better appreciate processes efficiency. The fuel characteristics of the formulated bioethanol were determined after distillation successive operations. From obtained results, hydrolysate showed higher content of total sugars (28.84 g/L) and an alcohol content of (28.28±1.03)% for first distillation after fermentation. The best performance of ethanol bioconversion was registered with the yeast Saccharomyces carlsbergensis. The formulated bioethanol has an octane number higher than 100, a lower calorific value of 42.99 MJ/kg with a density of 829.9 kg/m3 and a kinematic viscosity of 6.496 mm2/s. The bioethanol’s physicochemical characteristics evaluation has allowed to highlight the potential use of these agro-industrial wastes to produce fuel bioethanol.

Effect of dehydration on the phytochemical properties of herbs for the development of nutraceutical rich herbal squash

Surabhi Shukla, Vinita Puranik, Devinder Kaur, Pooja Agrawal and Vandana Mishra,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/3/55170.

Medicinal plants are of great importance to the health of individuals and communities. Many medicinal plants are used as spices and food. These plants and are also sometimes added to foods meant for medicinal purposes. As standardisation of herbal ingredient is relevant issue for both food manufacturers and consumers and research and data related to the effect of processing on the bioactive components of herbs are less reported, therefore, more research is needed to study the stability of herbal active components of medicinal herbs during processing mainly drying. Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) are famous medicinal herbs for their hepatoprotective activity, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antiaging, and memory enhancing properties. In view of these benefits, the effect of different drying techniques for the maximum retention of antioxidant activity of Tinospora cordifolia stem was studied and the best drying method was selected for further incorporation of powder extract for the development of functional beverage to provide specific health benefits beyond general nutrition. In the present research work, alcoholic and aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) and Ocimum sanctum (tulsi) respectively were prepared. To optimize the quantity of ingredients i.e. Tinospora extract, tulsi extract and sugar to be added, Response Surface Methodology was used. Statistical software Stat-Ease was used for statistical analysis of the experimental data. It was found that the sensory scores were 8.2, 7.92 and 8 for color, flavor and overall acceptability respectively, corresponding to optimum conditions. Squash having composition 10 ml tulsi extract, 8 ml Tinospora extract and 50% sugar/TSS was found optimum. 

Adsorption and inhibiting properties of Salix Babylonica Extract on the corrosion of carbon steel in hydrochloricacid solutions

A.S.Fouda1, A.F. Molouk , A.Y. ELKhateeb, A.M.Ekram,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/3/57185

The influence of Salix babylonica extract (SBE) on carbon steel (CS) corrosion in 1 molar HCl at 25°C has been investigated. Mass loss (ML) method, Tafel polarization (TP), AC impedance (EIS) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) tests have been used to derive the corrosion parameters. The data obtained from both tests (EIS and EFM) are comparable with those obtained from Tafel extrapolation tests, approving confirmation calculation of corrosion rates of the final. The inhibiting action of SBE was discussed in terms of blocking the CS surface by molecules adsorbed on the active sites. The adsorption was found to obey Temkin isotherm. The morphology of protected and unprotected CS has been examined by different techniques like: scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).  

A Study of Synthesis of Rhodamine-B Derivative Chemosensors

Debashree Mandal,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/3/58697

The role of green chemistry is very much important to ensure that our next generation of chemicals and energy is more sustainable than the current generation. To remove hazardous pollution we require different environment friendly chemical processes and cost-effective approaches. Here a study on synthesis of different rhodamine-B derivative has described. It is an excellent fluorescent and colorimetric sensor. It could provide a rapid, selective and sensitive response in addition of Al3+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe3+ and Hg2+ resulted in a rapid color change together with distinctive changes in UV-vis absorption spectrum. The colorimetric chemosensor in aqueous solution has been reflected in living cell imaging under a fluorescence microscope

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Elytraria acaulis Plant Root Extract and its Antimicrobial activity

Shailesh C Kotval, Kokila A Parma1, Tessy John,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/3/59809

nanoparticles of silver has been synthesized by using Elytraria acaulis plant root extract through a green chemistry approach with a number of advantages like eco-friendly process, economical efficient, non-toxic, energy efficient, less time consuming, environmentally safe and protecting human health. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by using Elytraria acaulis plant extract colour change of the solution from light yellow to dark brown confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles and the nature of synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, X-ray diffraction, SEM, and TEM. The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles exhibited a good antimicrobial activity against gram- negative and gram-positive bacteria

Physico-chemical, Phytochemical and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography studies of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn.Leaf

Thamizh Selvam N,Surabhi K R ,Vasantha Kumar K G, Sanjaya Kumar Y R,Sudesh Gaidhani N5, Radhakrishnan P

Cardiospermum halicacabum, commonly known as ‘Balloon Vine’ is a climbing plant under Sapindaceae family;and is distributed widely in tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia. It is used by local healers of South India for treatment of various illnesses.As there were not detailed studies on its chemical constituent aspects,the present study was taken up to investigate the same scientifically.The studies focusing onproximate composition, Physico-chemical characteristics, Phyto-chemical characteristics, HPTLC and Spectroscopic characteristics of the plant extract were carried out. The presences of compounds in the group of Tannins, Saponnins, Diterpenes and moderate level of other compounds have been documented.

Impact of Biopesticide (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Products to Stored Grain Pest

V.T. Noble Singh and S. Sam Manohar Das,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/3/61822.

maculatusis a pest of pulses like cowpea, green gram, and black gram. The pest infests in both field and storage conditions. In the present experiment neem seed kernel extract used to protect stored grains from pest population. For NSKE the mean percentage of reproduction control is 27.13. Insect pests have been a threat to food products. Neem products play a significant role in controlling them

Green Synthesis of Ion oxide Nanoparticles Using Water Extract from Leaves of Ficus Racemosa

S.R. Kondulkar, U.E. Chaudhari, D. J. Garole, R.S. Shekar, A.K. Wanjari, A.M. Kukade,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/3/62328.

In recent years, green synthesis of metal nanoparticles is an interesting issue of the nanoscience and nanobiotechnology. Nanoparticles produced by plants are more stable, and
the rate of synthesis is faster than that in the case of other organisms. The present investigation was carried out to green synthesis of Iron oxide nanoparticles by using the medicinal plant Ficus Racemosa Leaves. They were synthesized by mixing 9% of 0.01 M aqueous of ferrous sulphate with 1% aqueous extract of Ficus Racemosa Leaves. The formation of nanoparticles was monitored by visualizing colour changes and it was confirmed by Electron microscope (SEM), UV-Vis spectrophotometer and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy.This work proved the capability of using biomaterial towards the synthesis of Iron Oxide nanoparticles, by adopting the principles of green chemistry.

Synthetic food preservatives and their impacts on human health

Samir Maji and Soma Gorai,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/3/62939.

Now-a-days preservatives are added to almost all the packaged food products for preserving the natural characteristics of food as well as for prolonging their shelf life. Preservatives work in different ways; some of them (antimicrobial agents) are used to inhibit the growth of microorganisms, whereas others (antioxidants) can be used to retard the oxidation of food constituents (fats) to reduce rancidity. On the basis of origin, preservatives are classified into natural and synthetic categories, between them a wide variety of synthetic chemical food preservatives are now available in the market and used globally. It plays an important role in food transportation. Although these synthetic chemicals used in the food materials appear to be safe, some of them may be harmful if taken in more than the prescribed limits. Several adverse effects on human health can be found. Hence, the need for developing safe alternatives instead of using these toxic chemicals is becoming essential. This leads the current trends in the food industry to focus on the use of some appropriate and nontoxic natural compounds extracted from different plant parts of various species or from other natural sources like animal or microorganisms. This study provides information about the usages of common preservatives in our food products along with their advantages and disadvantages. We also highlight the current research direction towards the development of safe natural alternatives to increase the consumer’s awareness.

Laboratory evaluation of the pathogenic effect of fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) on the
cuticular structure of fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi (L.).

Bharati Veerwal and Arti Prasad,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/3/64048

The mosquito Anopheles stephensi (L.) (Diptera:Culicidae), is an important vector of malarial parasite in tropical and subtropical areas. Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) is one of the important biological entomopathogen that seems to be most effective against Anopheles stephensi (L.). In the present study, larvae of Anopheles stephensi infected with Beauveria bassiana were observed for their toxicity and histopahogenecity.Significant mortality with various developmental deformities were observed at LC50 (3.4×6.4×1011 conidia /ml) Histological  studies  further revealed that the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana infected and penetrated the cuticle and disintegrated its cells and various layers of cuticle . Since cuticle is  one of the most important structure of insects body, its disruption brought about fragile and deformed body structures causing death of the treated larvae.

A Comparative Study of the Surface Morphology of an Electroless Copper Deposition Bath using a Green and a Non-Green Solvent

Jayalakshmi Suseela, Venkatesh Perumal, Balaramesh Palanivelu,

This article reports the comparative study of surface morphology of the copper deposits using a green and a non-green solvent in an electroless copper deposition bath. The electroless copper plating was studied electrochemically using polyhydroxylic alcohol, Glycerol as the complexing agent and the reducing agents used are, a green solvent, Dimethylamineborane (DMAB) and a non-green solvent formaldehyde (HCHO). The pH of the copper methanesulphonate bath was maintained by using Potassium hydroxide as the pH adjuster. The copper electroless bath was optimized by adding stabilizers at a concentration of 1ppm at 11.50 ± 0.25 pH for DMAB and at 13.0 ± 0.25 pH for HCHO. Alanine(ALA) and Phenyl alanine(PHE) are used as stabilizers.  Their effects on plating bath were studied and reported. The characterization (SEM, AFM, XRD and CV studies) shows that the deposition using DMAB contained bath showed better and eco-friendly results than the formaldehyde used deposition bath.

Chem-Geological Monitoring of Persistent Pollutants at Industrial Park in Danang city, Central of Vietnam

Le Phuoc Cuong, Luong Van Tho, Tatjana Juzsakova, Shuhei Tanaka,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/3/65778

This chapter presents the results of a chem-geological survey the movement of persistent compounds as well as toxic pollutants in geological environment and the results of biochemical transformation in human body of Vietnamese, who is living nearby Hoa Khanh Industrial Park (IP), Vietnam. The research results show that inside the industrial park, the groundwater contains a significant amout of industrial electrolytes such as KCl, NaCl and heavy metal contamination such as Pb, Hg, Zn at a greater density than measured in the other residential areas. A combination of spectral and chromatographic analytical methods has been executed to monitor organic and inorganic compounds in the body of citizens as well as to determine the activities of the two-phase metabolic system: N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and the monooxygenases cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) of healthy test subjects, who are living nearby Hoa Khanh IP from 1 to 10 years. Research results show that the variations in the concentration of chemical elements in human hair depend upon the activities of the two-phase metabolic system, on the individual’s gender and the duration of residence within Hoa Khanh IP.

Kinetics of Formation of Concentrated Copper (I) Solutions and Their Role in Hydrometallurgy and Electrorefining: A Green Perspective

Vivek Pathania,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/3/67984

The Chemistry of monovalent copper, i.e., Cu(I) has been exploited to a great extent in the past few decades. Physicochemical studies like molar conductance, viscosity, isentropic compressibility and NMR of Cu(I) complexes with anions such as ClO4-, NO3-, SO4-, HSO4-, etc. and their derivatives with organic ligands like Acetonitrile, Benzonitrile, Phenanthroline, Dimethyl phenanthroline, Bipyridyl, Thiourea, etc. have been carried out in aqueous and nonaqueous solvents. In addition to these studies, the area of reaction kinetics of the rates of formation of concentrated Cu(I) solutions in binary mixtures of acetonitrile (AN) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) with water (H2O) has also been explored much. It was found that these reactions had strong dependence on the concentration of Cu(II), Ag(I) and Au(I) solution taken for the reaction, quantity and particle size of copper/nickel particles, amount of AN present in AN+H2O mixtures (5%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 50% (v/v)), temperature of the system studied, rate of stirring of the solution (number of revolutions per minute) and the amount of concentrated H2SO4 used to stop the hydrolysis of Cu(II), Cu(I) and Ni(II) salts. All these reactions are quite fast and generate a significant amount of Cu(I) in a given time. The role of these concentrated solutions has further been exploited in the purification of precious metals like copper, silver, gold and nickel using Hydrometallurgy and Electrorefining. Both these techniques are very economical thereby reducing the cost for the purification of precious metals to a great extent and hence, making them environment-friendly