Research Paper in Green Chemistry

Electroanalytical characterization of Nimesulide by Differential Pulse Polarography: Application to Pharmaceutical analysis

Patil S. V*, Kashid L. M., Kolekar G. B., Valekar N. J. and Tamhankar B. V,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /70114.

: In the present investigation electroanalytical characterization of Nimesulide were carried out. Differential pulse polarographic technique was used for the characterization of Nimesulide. The optimum experimental parameters for the differential pulse polarography (DPP) method were 0.1 M NaOH as the supporting electrolyte, current range 10µA, data acquisition fast, scan rate 6mV/sec, drop time 1sec, scan type forward, pulse amplitude 50mV. The calibration curves for Nimesulide were linear with the limit of detection (LOD) 5.02X 10-6 M obtained by the DPP method.

Secondary metabolites from the plant Manilkara hexandra Roxb

T.Annamalai John Joel Ganadoss Ayyar Manikandan and A.A.M. Prince,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /71524.

The air dried leaves of folklore medicinal plant, Manilkara hexandra Roxb., yielded Five known compounds: 4-methyl benzaldehyde (1), Cinnamic acid (2), Methyl-p-coumarate (3), p-coumaric acid (4), 3,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde (5). The air dried flowers of the plant yielded two known compounds: Ethyl nicotinate (6) and D-Quercitol (7). Structure of the compounds was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, 1H & 13C NMR and Mass) and Co-TLC comparison with an authentic samples and literature data. Benzaldehyde derivatives are reported for the first time from this plant. One of the compounds (5) is active against Streptococcus aureus at 500µg/ml level with zone of inhibition of 21.5±0.70mm and another compound (3) is active against Streptococcus epidermidis at 250µg/ml level with zone of inhibition of 22±1.41mm. Our finding throws light into the wisdom of our ancient system of medicine/practices, regular use of this herb in our daily routine can provide dynamic skin barrier against opportunistic infections.

Reduction of Schiff Bases from 5-Bromo-salicyaldehyde and Study of their Antimicrobial Activity

C. A. Nehete and C. J. Patil,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /72540.

The compounds containing >C=N- were synthesized by reacting 5-bromo-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde with aniline and substituted aromatic anilines are mixed separately and were refluxed in ethanol, till to complete the reaction, which was further reduced by NaBH4 and ascertain by TLC, the mobile phase, ethyl acetate: n-hexane (2.5: 0.5) was used for TLC. The final products were analyzed and characterized by visual viz. nature and colour, physical viz. m. p., analytical viz. TLC, instrumental viz. UV-Vis, FTIR and HR-MS spectral technique.

Qualitative phytochemical constituents assay of diverse solvent extracts of chosen medicinal plants

Kokkaiah Irulandi and Vadivel Siva,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /74148

Preliminary phytochemical analysis was important way for identified number of compounds in the chosen plant extracts and developments new drugs in the pharmaceutical fields. Phytochemical screening of three chosen plant extracts were contain following valuable constituents like quinones, coumarins, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, catechins, alkaloids, terpenoids and saponins using standard methods. Both methanol and aqueous extract of all tested medicinal plants were found to contain alkaloids. Phenols revealed in the methanol extracts of all the tested plants. Whole plant extract of Coscinium fenestratum revealed positive result for coumarins except methanol solvent extract. The entire tested extract of Atalantia racemosa showed negative for coumarins. The assays of all the plant methanol extracts were found flavonids compounds. In my study revealed that methanol and aqueous extracts of chosen plants contain bioavailability compounds and they are valid useful to treat various illness.

Green Nanotechnology in Herbal Medicine and Ayurveda

Revika Arora,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /74959.

Green Nanotechnology is the study of how nanotechnology can benefit the environment, such as by using less energy during the manufacturing process, the ability to recycle products after use, and using eco-friendly materials. Nanotechnology covers the diverse area of matters at dimensions between approximately 1 to 100 nanometers.  Herbal medicines have been widely used all over the world since ancient times and have been recognized by physicians and patients for their better therapeutic value as they have fewer adverse effects as compared with modern medicines.  Phytotherapeutics need a scientific approach to deliver the components in a sustained manner to increase patient compliance and avoid repeated administration. This can be achieved by designing novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) for herbal constituents. The integration of the nanoscience as a NDDS in traditional system of medicine enriches the potential of herbal drugs for treating chronic diseases.  Ayurveda   is thousands of years old holistic system of Indian medicine. Various herbs, metals and non-metal preparations are used as medicine in Ayurveda.  This review paper opens door to a completely new dimension in herbal medicine and ayurveda using green nanotechnology.

Comparative Study of Alpha Amylase Inhibitory Activities of Some Roots of Antidiabetic Plants

Manoj Kumar Gajbhiye, Arun Kakkar, Rakesh Patle, Hemant Ganweer,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /76069

In India, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is on the increase and needs to be addressed appropriately. In this study area, herbal remedies are considered convenient for management of Type 2 diabetes with postprandial hyperglycemia due to their traditional acceptability and availability, low costs, lesser side effects. Comparative evaluation of alpha amylase inhibitory activities of selected plants extracts. Three common plants in Balaghat district in MP namely, Momordica dioica, Vinca rosea, Gymnemm sylvestre were tested for their α-amylase inhibitory activities to establish antidiabetic potential of plant extracts were prepared sequentially with petroleum ether (PE), Ethyl acetate (EA), Ethanol (EtOH), and Aqueous (HOH) solutions. The extracts obtained were subjected to in vitro α-amylase inhibitory assay using starch azure as a substrate and porcine pancreatic amylase as the enzyme. Statistical difference and linear regression analysis were performed by using graphed prism 5 statistical Software. Ethanol (EtOH) extracts of Momordica Dioica, Vinca rosea, and Aqueous (HOH) extracts of Gymnema Sylvestre showed maximum percentage inhibition on α-amylase activity with an IC50 value of 29.30±33.59µg/ml, 26.33±35.62µg/ml, and 32.61±31.51µg/ml, respectively when compared with Acarbose (IC50 value 15.54±41.21µg/ml). The result showing that Momordica dioica, Vinca rosea, and Gymnema sylvestre, might be effective in lowering post prandial hyperglycemia.

Synthesis and Structural Studies of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle from Alternanthera Sessilliesis Plant

R.Vanitha and C.Kavitha,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /77078

Alternanthera sessillies is the one of the Ayurveda flatulence wounds cough bronchitis and diabetes this plant is also an important ingredient of several compounds of ayurvedic preparation. The plant is used throughout Asia and Africa to treat a verity of disorders including gastrointestinal problems such as flatulence nausea and vomiting, headaches, bronchitis, asthma, vertigo and even hepatitis. It is consider being one of those drugs which prevents & cures chronic diseases and rejuvenates the body. In nanotechnology, a particle is defined as a small object that behaves as a whole unit in terms of its transport & properties. The Particles are further classified according to size in terms of nano particles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometers in size. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are known to be one of the most multifunctional inorganic nanoparticles with its application in treatment of many diseases such as ayurvedic flatulence wounds, cough, bronchitis and diabetes. The zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using Alternanthera Sessilliesis fresh leaf extract and were characterized by UV spectroscopy (UV), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Therefore, the study reveals an efficient, eco-friendly and simple method for the green synthesis of multifunctional ZnO NPs using Alternanthera Sessilliesis.

An efficient and green synthesis of 2,3- dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives catalyzed by
{[bmim]Methanesulfonate} ionic liquid

Shreyas S. Mahurkar and Sangita S. Makone,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /77987.

 1-butyl, 3-methyl imidazolium methanesulfonate {[Bmim]CH3SO3} ionic liquid was found to be an efficient catalyst for the preparation of 2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives by the one pot three component condensation of isatoic anhydride, primary amine and aromatic aldehydes in ethanol : water solvent system. This procedure has several advantages such as short reaction time, easy work-up, excellent yields and reuse of ionic liquid

Activated carbon supported ionic liquid as highly efficient and reusable catalyst for synthesis of 1,8- Dioxooctahydroxanthene derivatives

M.B. Swami, A.H. Jadhav, N.V. Ghule, S.S. Mahurkar, S. R. Mathapati, A.N.Patil &S.G. Patil,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /78896

AC-IL-Br has been proved to be an highly efficient and ecofriendly catalyst for conversion of 5,5-dimethyl 1,3-cyclohexanedione and substituted aldehydes to 1,8-dioxooctahydroxanthene derivatives. The heterogeneous catalyst was prepared and characterized by using various advanced analytical techniques and employed in present reaction. The catalyst could be easily separated by simple filtration and reused furtherup to six cycles without loss of catalytic activity. Key advantage of this method is high yield, short reaction time, low cost, simple and easy work-up procedure.

Synthesis and application of new tamarind based TTCEA resin for removal of toxic metals from industrial waste water

Vikal Gupta, Meenakshi Choudhary, Pramila Ratnoo,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /79702

The present work describes adsorption behavior of chemically modified tamarind based resin with respect to cadmium, iron, chromium and lead. This work has been used to consider application of resin for treatment of industrial waste water. TKP (Tamarind Kernel Powder) is a low-cost adsorbent which has hydrophilic polysaccharide matrix for synthesizing chelating resin. Here Alanine group has been anchored on the TKP backbone in dioxane medium. Further resin has been prepared with the help of cyanuric chloride. Modified bifunctional TKP resin acts as a flocculent cum metal ion exchanger and can also be used as scavenger for harmful toxic metal ions from the effluents of metallurgical industries. The maximum removal efficiency of resin has been found to be 81.3% at pH 8.This resin is also environmental friendly.

Biosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nano Particles against Food Borne Pathogens

Cibi Komalan and Sreelakshmi K,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /80313.

: In this communication, very simple, low-cost and facile method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Averrhoa bilimbi leaf extract is reported. Conventional methods for the synthesis of AgNPs have many disadvantages. Biosynthesis provides a cost-effective, non-toxic, and environment friendly method for the synthesis of nano particles. The biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-VIS spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The synthesized AgNPs showed a distinct surface Plasmon peak at 410 nm and also the colour of the solution changed to reddish brown. The TEM and SEM images revealed that the morphology of AgNPs is almost spherical with an average size of 10 to 15 nm. Crystalline nature and purity of the AgNPs were evident from the characteristic XRD pattern. XRD-analysis showed intense peaks corresponding to (111), (200), (220), (311), (222) planes of face centered cubic structure of metallic silver. FTIR was used to find out the specific functional group responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate to AgNPs. The antibacterial effect of AgNPs was determined by well diffusion method. The AgNPs showed antibacterial activities against food borne pathogens Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogene.The antibactericidal effect increases with increase in the concentration of AgNPs. The promising results of biosynthesised AgNPs suggest its usage as an effective antibacterial agent to ensure food safety. These AgNPs can be incorporated with food package materials to prevent the attack and contamination of the food by the food borne pathogenic bacteria and hence corroborate the food safety.

Nutraceutical and phytochemical contents of Sprouts: A review

Monika and Jaspreet Kaur,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /81428

It can be stated that, during germination, seeds original composition changes. During germination, and non protein amino acids also are produced, and changes in the quantity of several amino acids present in sprouts. In these changes, values of several biological proteins of sprouts also changes. During germination of seeds, composition of free fatty acids changes. Hydrolyzed free fatty acids originates from triglycerides. Ratio of the saturated fatty acids increases as compared to the ratio of the unsaturated fatty acids during the process of germination. Essential fatty acids like linoleic acids are originated from unsaturated fatty acids. Germination of seeds decreases antinutritive material and increases nutritive material. The utilization of elements such as micro and macro elements are increased owing to germination. Sprouts of several seeds contain proteins, vitamins, flavonoids, enzymes, antioxidants and isothiocyanates etc. These all contents are proved to be effective in several degenerative diseases and heart diseases.

Management of Callosobruchus maculatus F. population with Neem Seed Powder

V.T. Noble Singh and S. Sam Manohar Das,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /82933

Substantial amount of grains invaded by insect pests and animal worldwide. NSKP probably increases the persistance of the insecticidal activity. Larvae hatching from eggs of C. maculatus should peneterate the seed to survive, but are unable to do this unless the egg is firmly attached to the seed surface. NSKP treatment 19.47 percent eclosion are reduced. So this biodegradable pesticide (NSKP) are also applicable.

Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Green Synthesized Copper Nanoparticles from the Leaf Extract of Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis

S.Kothai and Umamaheswari.R,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /83442.

size was found to be 28 nm. The antimicrobial study of the CuNps was establi: In the present study, we report an eco-friendly way for the green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using leaf extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Here, the leaf extract act as both reducing and capping agent. The resulting CuNps were characterized by UV-VIS, FT-IR, SEM, EDX and XRD. The morphological study of CuNps using SEM suggests that the nanoparticles are spherical in shape and agglomerates to form clusters. The average particle shed by using gram positive, gram negative and an opportunistic yeast pathogens. The antioxidant activity of the CuNps was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging assay.

Adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of malachite green (MG) dye adsorption from aqueous solutions on to Bael (Aegle marmelos) bark

Changdeo Ahilaji Kadam and Mazahar Farooqui, DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4/84352.

Present research article deals with use of cheap, highly efficient, easily available, novel adsorbent, Indian Bael (Aegle marmelos) bark for adsorption of toxic dye like Malachite Green (MG) from the aqueous solution. Different parameters such as temperature, contact time, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dose, pH and effect of salt were studied and optimal experimental conditions were maintained. Batch adsorption technique was used to optimize the process parameter. Obtained result shows that with increase in the adsorbent doses and contact time percentage adsorption of MG increases while decreases with increase in temperature, dye concentration and addition of salt. The MG adsorption on Bael bark untreated, treated with nitric acid and treated with formaldehyde were 96.64%, 97.46%  and 97.39 % respectively at optimum pH 8. Adsorption data was well fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters indicate adsorption as an endothermic process with decrease in randomness.

Synthesis of Heterocyclic Ketimines: Part-IV. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Studies of Heterocyclic Ketimines from 3-Acetyl-Coumarin

C. J. Patil, M. C. Patil and Mrunmayee C. Patil,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /85364

The Hetero-aromatic Ketimine was synthesized by treating the varied substituted anilines by conventional method. The synthesized Ketimines were characterized by colour, TLC, physical constant and UV-Vis spectra and FTIR spectral method. The Ketimines were also tested for the in-vitro biological activity and the results obtained were compared with Ciprofloxacin as known and standard drug.

A State Review on Green Chemistry

Patil S. V., Patil P. S., Gaikwad S. S., Langore K.R., and Tamhankar B.V.,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /86471

Green chemistry is the new and rapidly emerging branch of chemistry, especially, in the current days due to its potential to contain hazardous and toxic chemicals. Theaim of current article is to understanding the meaning of green chemistry and applies it in a day to day life. The article is focused on the twelve principles of green chemistry and the relevant examples. The use of modern technology, carbon credit concept and involvement of green chemistry in a day-to-day life is also discussed. The article focused on that if the principles of green chemistry are followed strictly the cost associated with the environmental safety and health can be reduced significantly

Chitosan-Zinc oxide with MMT K10 Superadsorbent Nanocomposites: Synthesis, Characterization and Its Antibacterial Activity

P. Latha, M. Margreet Leema, M. Revathy, Muthiah Sakthi Bagavathy, V. Swetha, S. John Britto, E. Puspha Lakshmi, S. Meenakshisundar, Gurusamy Annadurai,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /87284.

 Chitosan based zinc oxide with MMT K10 superabsorbent Nanocomposite were synthesized and characterized by polymerization technique. Zinc oxide powder synthesized from Zinc nitrate using precipitation Method. The superabsorbent Nanocomposite were characterized by SEM-EDAX, TGA, DSC, FTIR, XRD and BET surface area analysis techniques. On the basis of these analyses the synthesized nanocomposites were amorphous in nature and spherical in shape. Superabsorbent Nanocomposite also tested for antibacterial activity to evaluate its inhibiting potential. The experimental results revealed that synthesized nanocomposites have higher antibacterial activity for tested pathogens.

Corrosion Inhibition Effects of Leaves of Tylophora Indica for Iron in Acid Media

Archna Kumari, Seema Kothari and Alok Chaturvedi,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /88596

Corrosion is a natural process which converts a refined metal to a more chemically stable form, such as it’s oxide, hydroxide or sulphide. It is the gradual destruction of materials by chemical or electrochemical reaction with their environment. It can be controlled by either sacrificial protection or by alloying or by antirust solution. The naturally occurring plant product are eco friendly, compatible, non polluting, less toxic , easily available biodegradable and economic to be used as corrosion inhibitor. It is easily available in any season. It is used for the treatment of asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, crohn disease and cancer. It is also called anantmul. It contains alkaloid, steroids reducing sugar, tannis, flavonoids, proteins, terpenoids etc. Corrosion inhibition efficiency of leaves of Tylophora Indica was studied for iron in HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4. The maximum inhibition efficiency was found up to 98.95 for iron in 0.5N H2SO4 at an Inhibitor concentration of 0.7 % of leaves extract whereas it was 83.37 in 0.5N HCl and 61.50 in 0.5N HNO3 with same concentration of inhibitors

External Parasitism and Parasitemy in High Traditional Children in the District of Savanes

DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /89705

SEA Tehi Bernard, SORO Yadé René, M’BARI Benjamin, GRAGNON Biégo Guillaume

This study was conducted to evaluate external parasitism and parasitaemia in village chicken raised in the savannah district of Côte d'Ivoire. The identification of these parasites revealed that 110 chickens carried ectoparasites and 11 had at least one haemoparasite. The prevalences of these parasites gave 42% Echidnophaga gallinacea, 5% Menopon gallinea, 4.5% Dermanyssus gallinae, 3% Sarcoptes scabei and 0.5% Hyalomma truncatum. Three species of haemoparasites have also been identified. These are Aegyptianella sp (2.5%), Plasmodium sp (2.5%) and Leucocytozoom sp (0.5%).This work showed that adult chickens and females were the most infected with respective prevalences of 52.80% and 51.25%.

Parasitisme Externe et Parasitemie Chez Les Poulets Traditionnels Eleves Dans Le District Des Savanes.

DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /89705.

SEA Tehi Bernard, SORO Yadé René, M’BARI Benjamin, GRAGNON Biégo Guillaume

Cette étude a été réalisée pour évaluer le parasitisme externe et la parasitémie chez le poulet villageois élevé dans le district des savanes en Côte d’Ivoire. L’identification de ces parasites a révélé que 110 poulets étaient porteurs d’ectoparasites et 11 porteurs d’au moins un hémoparasite. Les prévalences de ces parasites ont donné 42 % d’Echidnophaga gallinacea, 5 % de Menopon gallinea, 4,5 % de Dermanyssus gallinae, 3% de Sarcoptes scabei et 0,5 % de Hyalomma truncatum.Trois espèces d’hémoparasites ont également été identifiées. Ce sont Aegyptianella sp (2,5 %), Plasmodium sp (2,5 %) et Leucocytozoom sp (0,5 %).Ce travail a montré que les poulets adultes et les femelles étaient les plus infectés avec des prévalences respectives de 52,80 % et 51,25 %.

Variation in proximate constituents of soil organic matter on replacement of natural forest with plantations.

DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /90609

Dr. T. Geetha& Dr. M. Balagopalan

When natural forest is cut down and monoculture plantations of teak and eucalypt are introduced in its place, the amount and composition of soil organic matter is found to vary significantly.  In this study when proximal constituents of soil organic matter was analyzed. It was observed that the content of free sugar, hemicelluloses, cellulose, fats, waxes, protein and lignin under plantations were significantly lower than that of natural forest. On the other hand resin contents in eucalypt plantations were found to be significantly higher than natural forest and plantations of teak.

Removal of Heavy metals from aqueous solution by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles  

DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /91017


Chandranayan Waghmare, Kiran Pakhale, Milind Ubale, Shivanand Sonkamble

Advances in nanoscale science and engineering encourage resolving various recent problems associated with water quality using nanosorbents and nanoparticles resulting from the development of nanotechnology.  The resulting products involving nanotechnology helps to decrease the concentration of harmful toxic compounds to tolerable level.  This can assist to achieve standard water quality as per health advisories. Present article summarized about the application of Iron Oxide nanoparticles (ION) in water purification by adsorption of heavy metals on its surface. To limit the spread of the heavy metals within water sources, Iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) adsorbents were used as nano adsorbents with the aim of removal of heavy elements namely Fe, Cr ions. Affinity and efficiency of Iron Oxide Nanomaterials (ION) at different sorption factors like pH, contact time, initial concentration of Fe and Cr metal ions, the dosage of ION and temperature were observed. The obtained data showed good linear relationship with a correlation coefficient (R2) larger than 0.9.

NANOCS/TIO2 Composite for Photocatalytic and Antibacterial Studies

DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /91829.

Muthiah Sakthi Bagavathy, M. Margreet Leema, M. Perachiselvi, S.John Britto,Gurusamy Annadurai

In this report, the Nanohybrid synthesis of Chitosan/TiO2 was executed by Liquid phase deposition technique in aqueous medium. Nanohybridizing was done in presence of PVP as the capping agent. Structural and Physico-chemical properties of the obtained Nanohybrid (CS/TiO2) were systematically characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM, DLS and FL. The Prepared Nanohybrid act as a good Photocatalyst for the decoloration of Methylene blue (MB) dye under UV light illumination in aqueous phase. The result shows that Polymer (Chitosan) hybridized with TiO2 could produce an effective Photocatalytic activity and the degree of Photocatalytic enhancement strongly depends on bonding of chitosan and TiO2. It is attributed to the suppression of charge carrier’s recombination resulting from the interaction between chitosan and TiO2. In addition, the Nanohybrid also proved to be an excellent antimicrobial agent against gram-positive (Bacillus) and gram-negative (E-coli) pathogens

Correlation Study for the Quality Assessment of Betwa River Water in Vidisha District, Madhya Pradesh, India

DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /93037

Aarti Patel and Dr. Manoj Datar

It is always necessary to use valid, reliable and reproducible methods for the control and the monitoring of water quality. This study concerns the analysis of physico-chemical parameters of the Betwa River and correlations between these parameters in order to establish a diagnostic of water surface status of the river. To carry out the study, samples were taken on eight different sites in Vidisha district during the year of 2015. For the analysis of river water different parameters like pH, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Suspended Solids, Total Solids, Chloride contents, Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Dissolved Oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, phosphates, nitrates, and sulphates were selected. This study revealed that there is a significant spatial variation in Total Solids, Total Suspended Solids and Chemical oxygen Demand which indicates different types of land use activities like agricultural or industrial uses. In duration of study, TS – TSS, chloride - Total alkalinity and Total hardness - Chemical Oxygen Demand were showing strong positive correlation. All parameters were under acceptable limit except TS and TSS. However it is necessary to improve and maintain the water quality of river in this area.

Molecular dynamics simulation of renin in aqueous environment

DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /93843

Abhik Chatterjee,Uttam Kumar Mondal, Pranab Ghosh, Asim Kumar Bothra,Biswajit Das

Renin is a hormone that controls many physiological functions in our body. Secretion of renin occurs from the Juxtaglomerular cell of the kidney. It activates the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) producing the angiotensin peptides which manage blood pressure, cell growth, apoptosis and electrolyte balanced. In this paper, molecular dynamics simulation of renin in aqueous environment has been considered. Molecular dynamics simulation has become an indispensable method for understanding the structure and biological functions of proteins. The following parameters radius of gyration, root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuation was monitored.  It is seen from the analysis that elasticity exists in the protein and it does not act as a rigid body. Chain B is more fluctuating than chain A.

Acid activated palygorskite: an efficient solid acid catalyst for alkylation reactions - a comparative study

DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/7/4 /94452.

Dhanya Balan A P and Pushpaletha P

A mild and efficient solid acid catalysts were prepared from natural palygorskite collected from Karnataka and Hyderabad and compare their catalytic activities.  Modification technique used for the preparation of the catalysts are acid activation. During acid activation exchangeable cations are replaced by H+ ions and a part of octahedral cations are dissolving and thus creating new acid sites in the crystal. The catalytic performances of these catalysts were investigated by using the alkylation reaction. Alkylation reaction was done by treating benzene, biphenyl, naphthalene, anisole, p-Xylene and toluene with benzyl chloride in liquid phase medium. Physico chemical properties were characterized by XRD, SEM and NH3-TPD measurements.