The chemistry of silicon is largely that of four coordinated compounds but many stable compounds containing five and six coordinated silicon are known. Hypercoordinated silicon compounds attract interest from both the structural and reactivity point of view. The isolation of such compounds allows detailed insight into mechanistic pathways of nucleophilic substitution at silicon. On the other hand compounds based on such synthons exhibit interesting properties as electronic materials. Apart from the rich chemistry of these penta and/or hexacoordinate silicon compounds, it has been found that these species are relatively cheap, have low toxicity and are environmental friendly reagents. Therefore much of the research efforts, recently have been directed towards their synthesis, reactivity, structural investigations and biological activity of such compounds. The present paper deals with the overview of reactivity and biological activity of some penta and hexa-coordinated silicon compounds.
S.Kothai and T.Sobana Premlatha,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /01017
Bionanocomposites from biopolymers and inorganic nanoparticles are of great interest for various biomedical applications. The present study focussed on the synthesis of collagen-silver (I) oxide nanocomposites incorporated with three different medicinal herbs. The synthesised bio nanocomposites were characterised by UV-Vis, FTIR, FESEM analysis techniques. The FESEM study showed that the particle size of composites were found to be in the range of 50 to 100 nm. The antibacterial study of the composites were carried out by well diffusion method and they showed excellent activity against S.aureus and E.coli bacterial strains.
M. Anu, C. Premalatha and R. Malarvizhi,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /01829.
The purpose of this study is preparation and characterization of activated carbon using wood apple rind waste biomass by using two different acids like sulphuric acid and phosphoric acid. A series of experiments were conducted in a batch mode system to evaluate the capacity of the adsorbent by changing the variables .i.e. initial pH, initial dye concentration and contact time. The FT-IR analysis of the activated carbon depicts the presence of various functional groups present on it. The isotherm data were fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich models. The kinetic data were fitted with pseudo first order and pseudo second order kinetic models. The pH of the dye solution plays a major role in the adsorption process and it is the most important factor compared to all other factors that affect the adsorption process.">
Rajesh P. Ganorkar and Samiksha V. Malpe,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /03036.
In rural areas where access to modern health facilities is limited by the level of development, plants, shrub, herbs, algae remain the main stay of the health care system. Moisture , ash content , cold water, hot water, 1% NaoH and HCl solubility of CassineGlauca leaves sample have been investigated in proximate analysis and in preliminary Phytochemical analysis the leaves sample of Cassine Glauca have been studied of extraction in distilled water, ethanol, peutrolium ether, Acetone, ethyl acetate, benzene and chloroform have been studied. The leaves of Cassine Glaucais use in a herbal medicine as rich source of phytochemicals with the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate, cardiac glycosides, flavoinoids, phenol, saponin, tanin, coumarine. Hence the leaves of CassineGlaucacould be use as good pharmaceutical and therapeutic agent in future.
Petrit Rama; Bari Hodaj;Thoma Nasto and Hekuran Vrapi,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /03742
Naturally, the hazelnut tree grows in multiple stems. However, for hazelnut production, the cultivation of hazel tree is making in form of a bush and in form of a tree with one trunk. The form of a bush is suitable for smaller, family orchards in which a large number of complex technical activities are made by hand. The form of cultivation with one trunk enables application of mechanization and modern agro technical interventions including mechanization of harvesting and is therefore mainly applied on plantations of agriculturally developed countries. We studied the influence of those two forms cultivation on fruit production in five years old hazelnut tree cv.Visoka. We found that the total of TCSA (trunk cross-sectional area) of the three trunks of the bush was markedly greater than the TCSA of the single trunk of the tree that was cultivated with a trunk, respectively 47.916cm2 and 37.23 cm2. Fruit yield was positively related to TCSA (trunk cross-sectional area), respectively 1456.66 gr./tree and 1210 gr./ tree. In both cases the yield efficiency, (kg yield per tree) / (cm2 TCSA) was almost equal (30.394gr/cm2 and 32.448gr/cm2.
Tessy John, Kokila A Parmar, Shailesh C Kotval, Jayesh Jadhav,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /04354
Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from biological source is the most efficient approach because it is eco-friendly and less time consuming. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using Withania Somnifera (L.) (Ashwagandha) root extract as reducing agent. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized under UV-Visible spectrophotometer, FTIR, SEM, XRD and TEM. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used to monitor the formation of silver nanoparticles. The TEM analysis shows that the silver nanoparticles had an average size of 20 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the particles were crystalline in nature. The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was performed on various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. These silver nanoparticles showed a significant cytotoxic effect against both MCF-7 and Hep-2 cells.
Aishwarya. A. Andhare, Ravindra S. Shinde, A. J. Deshmukh,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /05560.
The present study was carried out to use banana peels (Musa sapientum), duckweed (Lamna minor) and egg shell as an organic fertilizer. Banana peels and egg shells are any how wasted and can be a great source of biodegradable source of garbage while duckweed is contaminated aquatic plant, causes reduction in aquatic life. In split of that, these ingredients are having high nutritional value. The research was conducted to prepare a cheap organic fertilizer using these three ingredients. Interestingly, organic fertilizer prepared from these ingredients gave excellent results in wheat crop. Wheat crop supplemented with the organic fertilizer in a pot grow very rapidly and there is increment in agronomic parameters viz., seedling emergence, emergence of two leaf stage, tillering, advanced tillering, jointing, flag leaf emergence, flag leaf fully emergence, boot stage and head emergence as compared to wheat crop non supplemented with the organic fertilizer. Moreover to this a significant difference in soil pH was also observed. Field collected soil was observed to have 5.7 pH whereas the soil added with the organic fertilizer has 6.9 pH and which we generally consider as normal pH. Thus these positive results of earliness of wheat crop and change in soil acidic pH to normal pH is only possible as these ingredient base fertilizer might have contains increased concentration of essential nutrients needed for plant growth and development as compared to regular field soil.
Ravi Kumar Bommera, Thirumala Chary Maringanti, Ramchander Merugu and Laxminarayana Eppakayala, DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /06171
2-aminonicotinic acid, trimethyl orthoacetate and ammonium acetate are reacted to form 2-Methylpyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one (2) which was convered to 4-Chloro-2-methylpyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine (3) by reacting with POCl3. Further Compound-3 and (2-fluoro-5-(trifluoromethoxy) phenyl) methanamine (4) are condensewd inpresnce of K2CO3. All the synthesized compounds are characterized by spectral analysis and docking studied for the title compounds was also presented.
Ashok kumar, M. Babu, M. and Jeyachandran, M,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /07282.
The present study describes the simple, efficient, rapid and ecofriendly synthesis of a new series of benzotriazepine derivatives and its anticorrosive properties. Three compounds (3f, 3g and 3i) exhibited impressive anticorrosive activity and the preliminary results are promising enough to warrant further studies around this scaffold
C.I. Nosiri, U.O. Arunsi, A.C. Ngwogu, J. Idume and O.C. Atasie,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /08392.
The gastroprotective effect of Annona muricata (Linn.) seed extract on aspirin induced ulcer model in wistar rats was evaluated using standard analytical methods. A total of twenty-five (25) Wistar rats used in the study was divided into 5 groups of 5 rats each: 1, Normal control (received 0.2ml distilled water); 2,Negative control (received 400mg/kg Aspirin); 3, Positive controla (pretreated with omeprazole 20mg/kg);4, positive controlb(pretreated with A. muricataseed extract 200mg/kg); and 5,positive controlc (pretreated withA. muricataseed extract400mg/kg extract).The result divulged that the administration of Aspirin led to significant increase (p<0.05) in ulcer score, ulcer index, gastric volume, total acidity and pepsin activity with means and standard deviations of 14.92 0.09; 10.10 0.17, 7.12 0.23mL; 12.14 0.21mEq/L; and 98.82 0.17mEq/L respectively. These ulcerogenic indices were lowered significantly (p<0.05) in groups pretreated with omeprazole and ethanolic seed extract of A. muricata. Furthermore, Omeprazole offered higher percentage gastroprotection than A. muricata seed extract. The degree of gastroprotection is in the order: A. muricata (200mg/kg)<A. muricata (400mg/kg)<Omeprazole (20mg/kg). The findings of the present study demonstrated that ethanolic seed extract of A.muricata manifested comparable gastroprotection effect against aspirin-induced ulceration vis-à-vis the reference drug. Omeprazole and the different doses of the extracts in this study may have suppressed gastric acid secretion via inhibition of H+/K+ ATPase or enhanced prostaglandin synthesis.
Environmental pollution, viz., air, water, soil, etc., is generally caused by natural phenomena as well as due to anthropogenic activities. Natural phenomena triggering environmental pollution are earthquakes, tsunami, landslides, floods, solar storms and volcanic eruptions upon which there is no human control. These biogenic activities may or may not be caused by El Nino or Al Nina effects. However, thoseprecipitated by differentbut direct human activities areglobal warming (due to greenhouse effect),ozone-layer depletion, eutrophication or hypertrophication of water bodies, release of toxic chemicals, fertilizers, plastic and polymersin soil, air and aquatic environment and setting free of radio-active materialsinto the same. Over the years, our environment has been damaged almost to beyond repair. The effect of environmental pollution is quite visible in climate change in the form of unusual heat-wave conditions and unseasonal rains and snows experienced throughout the world including India.Now it’s a high time to do something fruitful so that some of the environmental pollutionscan be mitigated to some extent, until it becomes too late. In this endeavor, titanium dioxide (TiO2) which is a non – toxic versatile green chemical can play a vital role. The present paper deals with attenuating ability of TiO2, a green photocatalyst, in removing some of the hazardous pollutants from the environment.
A series of Ag-Ni bimetallic c nanoparticles were synthesized using toddy collected from Borassus flabellifer. These formed nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis, SEM-EDX and FTIR methods. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to have a size between 100-115 nm. They were further analyzed for their antibacterial and antioxidant activity.
Prof. Sangita Sanjay Makone, Navashaba Tazin, Dr. Sandeep Nivruttirao Niwadange, DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /10917.
We have developed a one pot facile route for the synthesis of fused 3,4-dihydropyrimidine- 2(1H)-thiones by three component condensation of aldehydes, ethyl acetoacetate and thiourea is described using ionic liquid 1-butyl, 3-methyl imidazolium perchlorate ([bmim] ClO4) under reflux conditions.
Dr. Suresh kumar Halnor,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /11822
Low cost adsorbent used was Hydrochloric acid treated Syzygium Cumini Leaf Powder (SCLP).This was used to remove chromium ions from aq. solution. pH, initial conc.of adsorbate and adsorbent dose parameters were studied and adsorption study was carried out.
Jaswant S. Rathore and Chandra Shekhar Jeengar,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /12327
Major and trace elements have been of prime importance in different species of plants. Their role and functions have been well established in many cases but newer aspects are continuously being discovered. We have made an attempt to analyses the significant elements in plants leaves as freely mobile and in bound form. Leaf being highly functional part, gives indication about the overall morphology of the plants. Water soluble extract and the insoluble part was analyzed for Major elements Na, K, Ca, Mg and trace elements Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, Co, Ni by MPAES instrument of Agilent co. USA. Distribution of each element indicates its role in the overall development of plant. Conclusions have been drawn by correlation study of different elements. The critical elements in the three species have been identified in the category of arid plants.
Rishabh Chitranshi and Naveen Kumar Arora ,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /12835
Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oilseed crop in India. It has a good contribution to Indian economy. Oil seeds are highly susceptible for fungal infections under storage condition as they have ample amount of nutrients in them. Different fungal species of Aspergillus were dominant in coursing infections in groundnut. Aspergillus species cause various deteriorative alterations by physical and chemical means in groundnut seeds. Storage fungi cause chronic infection in seeds due to favorable environmental conditions such as moisture, relative humidity and temperature. In current study, fungal pathogens were isolated from Groundnut seeds. Groundnut seeds were singled out from warehouse located in Farrukhabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Two dominant fungal pathogens RF-02 and RF-07 which cause major destruction in storage groundnut seeds were selected for further analysis at genus and species level by using 18S rRNA sequencing technique. Fungal strains dominantly covered up about 90 percent of groundnut seeds. After 18s rRNA, sequencing RF-02 and RF-07 strains were identified as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. These identified sequences were submitted in NCBI and got the accession numbers KY933394 and KY357318 respectively
Adam A. Farah Leila M. Mokhtar Amar S. Abdallah,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /13642
The goal of this study is to convert waste cooking oil into biodiesel using an alkali catalyzed transesterification chemically biodiesel is monoalkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable feed stock like vegetable oils and animal fats. It is produced by transesterification in which, oil or fat is reacted with a monohydric alcohol in presence of a catalyst to give the corresponding monoalkyl esters. The titration, distillation, colorimetric and XRDF techniques was used for analysis the oil. The waste cooking oil parameters: Acid Value (2.46%), Free Fatty Acid (0.66%), Moisture Content (0.9231%), Density 455.7 (kg/m3), Viscosity (19.64 mm2/s), Peroxide Index (202.83 O2/kg), Saponification Value (8.45 mg/g), Unsponifiable material (0.98%) and Impurities (1.23%). Biodiesel properties such as: Flash Point 63 , Density 883.8 Kg/m3, API Gravity 28.48, Kinamatic Viscosity 4.65 mm2/s, Distillation at 90% at 334 , Color 2.50, Cetane Index 47.00 Sulfur Content 0.0224%, Heat of Combustion 45.10 MJ/Kg Water Content 0.00%, Cloud Point 1.00 These results was conformed with the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). It was concluded that waste cooking oil is one of the option for biodiesel production at a large scale depending on its mass cultivation. More search for alternative feed-stocks needs to be continued.
A series of N-substituted imines of indoles were synthesized in high purity and excellent yield by reaction of formylated indoles with several anilines in presence of PPA-SiO2 solid acid catalyst under microwave irradiation in neat and solvent-free conditions. The structures of these environmentally benign synthesized imines were supported by elemental analyses, IR and 1H NMR spectral data. These investigated imines were evaluated for antimicrobial activity in vitro against selected bacteria and fungi and found that all have shown good antimicrobial activity as compared to standards.
Malamanonmani P and Mehalingam P.DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /15360
The present study was aimed to investigate the pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical investigation of Cosciniumfenestratum (Gaertn.) Colebr. The materials were collected from Western Ghats, Tirunelveli District, India. Standard protocols and procedures were followed for microtome processing and preliminary phytochemical screening. The transverse section of the leaf showed the presence of circular hyaline hypodermal layer, three layered parenchymatous cells. Presence of thick walled parenchyma, small isolated calcium oxalate crystals were observed in the cortical region. Druses were abundant in the form of crystals in petiole. The anatomy of the stem revealed the occurrence of 8 to 10 parenchymatous layers in the cortical zone and thick walled sclerenchymatous zone with lignifications. It is evident from the data that the secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, steroids, phenolic, tannins, flavonoids and triterpenoids were predominant in the whole plant powder extracts of this plant. This observation would be an immense value in the botanical identification and standardization of the drug in the crude form. This study also enabled us to authenticate the drug from the adulterants.
Hiral H. Takoliya, Nayana Brahmbhatt, Rinku V. Patel and Hemal H. Takoliya;DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /16179
In recent years most of farmers are used chemical fertilizer. It is very harmful to health, effect on soil, water, air and other living thing also. In this test impact of seaweed fertilizer on growth parameters such as percentage germination, root length, shoot length, seedling length, seed vigour index (SVI) and seed stamina index (SSI) of Corinderum sativum, Trigonella foenum- graecum, Spinacia oleracea seeds. Seeds had been treated by bio-priming with various concentration of seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF) of Sargassum wightii & Sargassum johnstonii such as 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%. In this experiment, maximum results was obtained in 6% concentration of Sargassum wightii in Corinderum sativum, Trigonella foenum- graecum, Spinacia oleracea seeds which was applied in pot method.
Malarvizhi.P, Sudharameshwari.K and Salini.R;DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /18091
Pedalium murex plant extracts as a capping agent for the green synthesis of the copper nanoparticle. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of a maximum of nine phytochemicals in water and ethyl acetate extracts of Pedalium murex and its nanoparticle (NP) namely steroids, glycosides, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, proteins, saponins, carbohydrates and tannins and a minimum of seven phytochemicals in chloroform extract and its nanoparticle. Antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method revealed that aqueous extract of nanoparticles showed maximum inhibitory activity against most of the selected microorganisms except a few. Antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of nanoparticles were estimated by three different assays. The results proved that the overall antioxidant activity was highest in all nanoparticle extract compared with plant extract. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity by protein denaturation method indicated that aqueous extract & NP has shown maximum inhibition compared to other extracts. The copper nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR.
The present work describes bioadsorption of Mn (VII) ions by green algae. The local green algae are easily available in semi dry climate. Capacity of green algae for removal of heavy metal ion, has been tested on various parameters such as concentration of permanganate ions and contact time. The maximum removal efficiency of Mn(VII) has been found 81.5% at 3.5 pH. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models have been applied to describe the isotherms.
Mulberry Silkworm Bombyx mori L. is the principal silk producing insect of great commercial interest. This insect is reared under the indoor condition on the foliages of mulberry host plant during the seed crop seasons for the betterment of our economy and also fruitful source of earning much need foreign currency. The place of this mulberry silk insect in agriculture and industrial development is significant and its constitutes the raw material of India’s Chief cottage industry. However the mulberry silk culture suffers great loss of crop owing to its diseases namely Virosis, bacteriosis, sporozoasis and mycosis as such the productivity and the quality of silk cocoons get impaired. It is assumed that the said diseases have profound effects on the physiological and biochemical make up of silkworm because under the impact of diseases the metabolic manifestations of the silkworm show significant deterioration at the various stages of its life cycle.1-3 It is further known that the sericigenous insects require number of organic compounds namely carbohydrate, fat, lipids, vitamins, steroids and amino acids as nutrients.4Keeping in view the above facts the present project entitled “some biochemical investigations in relation to different diseases among the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori L.” has been proposed which aims at understanding the biochemical changes in the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori at different larval stages under various diseased conditions.
Kavitha G Singh, Priyanka. S, Smitha B R.;DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /20513.
Legume is a plant or its fruit or seed or pod in the family Fabaceae or Leguminosae. Food legumes play an important role in human diet as they are rich source of proteins, carbohydrates, dietary fibres, minerals, vitamins as nutritional properties. In order to reduce the anti-nutrients and enhance the nutritive properties in legumes, these must be processed by various methods such as soaking, sprouting/germination, cooking and roasting. With various health benefits, kaala mung (Vigna mungo) and soyabean (Glycine max) were chosen and were subjected to various processing methods. Proximate analysis such as ash, moisture, fibre content were determined of legumes subjected to various processing methods. Biochemical analysis such as total sugars, reducing sugars, lipid content, were also determined in the legumes subjected to different processing methods.
Today it is very important to use renewable fuels for power generation and transportation because of energy security, environmental issues, foreign exchange savings and socio-economic issues. Biodiesel defined as a fuel composed of mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats which is taken to be a source of renewable energy. The widely used bio-diesel production process, is transesterification. Transesterification process is considered to be green technological process which provide very good and high yield of methyl esters. Different type of non-edible plant seeds like M. champaca, Karanja (pongamia pinnata), Azadirachta Indica (Neem), Simarouba Glauca have been compared with each other under this investigation. This review explain the production of biodiesel from the non-edible plant seeds & its quality for CI engine.
Omprakash Meena and Alok Chaturvedi,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /22131.
The corrosion inhibition of Tin by extract of Phyllanthus nirurii in different solutions of HNO3 (1N, 2N, 3N) was investigated by weight loss and thermometric methods at 300K temperature. From the study, it was found that the inhibition efficiency increases with the increase in the concentration of extract of aerial part of the plant in HNO3 solutions. Results indicate that extract of Phyllanthus nirurii was an efficient natural corrosion inhibitor in acidic media. The leaf extract of the Phyllanthus nirurii is better corrosion inhibitor than stem and flower extract of the plant. Absorption of Phyllanthus nirurii depends on its chemical compositions which showed the presence of various compounds like alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, tannins etc.">
Ecofriendly technologies must be used to clean environment such as degradation by microorganisms. The bioemulsifier produced by S.cerevisiae can be used for the bioremediation of Heavy metal and hydrocarbon pollutants and also enhance the plant growth.S.cerevisiaeis a species of yeast. S.cerevisiae yeast used for bioemulsifier production with two different media (mineral salt media and cooper paddocks medium) study. The bioemulsifier production from fermentation was supplemented with different types of oils such as 1% Coconut, Groundnut, Gingelly, Palm and Castor oil. The screening of bioemulsifier was done by using emulsification index, emulsification assay, oil displacement and Drop collapse method. Growth kinetics assays helps to screen the best bioemulsifier. The biochemical parameters (carbohydrate, reducing sugar and protein) were estimated.The effective environmental factor pH & salt were read followed by the partial isolation and purification of Na2 so4. SDS- PAGE was run to detect the molecular weight of protein present in bioemulsifier. Finally plant growth hormones namely IAA, Gibrellic acid ,siderophore, were estimated in cooper paddocks medium. Biometric analysis were performed followed Chlorophyll and carotenoids estimation. The highest emulsification index, activity, oil displacement and drop collapse assay was observed in coconut oil respectively (56.6%), 146 EU/Ml, 1.5mm. PH 7 & Nacl2 was the best enhancer for bioemulsifier production. 17%, 19% and 32% of protein, carbohydrate and reducing sugar estimated, single band of 35KDa of S.cerevisiae was obsereved in SDS- PAGE. S.cerevisiae stimulated the growth hormone and enhanced the Zee mays and Arachishypogaeaplant well grown in cooper paddocks medium containing coconut oil.
Shaikh A. Baseer, Nishat Parveen, Shankar Konda, Bhaskar S. Dawane;DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/GC/8/1 /24754.
A simple, efficient, single step and environmentally benign synthesis of a new series of pyrazole containing 1, 5-benzodiazepines was described here by the condensation of chalcones with o-phenylenediamine using piperidine in polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) as a reaction solvent. The advantages of this protocol are easy set-up, excellent yield, mild reaction condition and avoidance of volatile organic solvent .Furthermore these newly synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity.