Research Paper in Herbal Chemistry

Paneer Doda (Withania coagulans Dunal): A Promising Therapeutic Agent

Nidhi Agarwal, Pramod Kumar Raghav, Richa Singh & Renu Singh

Paneer Doda (Withania coagulans Dunal), belonging to the family Solanaceae, is a small bush which is widely spread in South Asia. It grows as short shrub (35-75 cm) with central stem. This shrub is common in Afghanistan, East India & Nepal. In India it occurs in Punjab, Rajasthan, Simla, Kumaun and Garhwal. It is commonly known as ‘Indian cheese maker’ or ‘vegetable rennet’ due to coagulant property of leaves and fruits. The berries contain two esterases, free amino acids,fatty oil, an essential oil and alkaloids. The amino acids present are proline,hydroxyproline, valine, tyrosine, aspartic acid, glycine asparagin, cysteine and glutamic acid. A variety of withanolides have been found in the plant which are responsible for its therapeutic properties. It is widely used in treating diabetes mellitus, nervous exhaustion, disability, insomnia, wasting diseases and failure to thrive in children. The fruits of the plant are reported to be sedative, emetic, alterative and diuretic. They are also helpful in liver complaints, asthma and biliousness.

Ethnomedicinal Plants used to Cure Snake Bite, Diarrhea and Dysentery used by Irula Tribes in Bolampatty Valley,Coimbatore Forest Division, Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (NBR), Southern Western Ghats, India

M. Kalaiselvan, S. Sambooranam and R. Gopalan

An ethnomedicinal survey was carried out among the ethnic groups(Irulas) in Bolampatty Valley (NBR, Western Ghats), Coimbatore. The tribal communities of Irulas nurture rich knowledge about medicinal plants and its uses.Therefore, we have done a meticulous ethnomedicinal survey in this area. In this present investigation, it is observed that the tribes use 15 valuable wild medicinal plant species belonging 13 families were identified with relevant information and documented in this paper with regard to their botanical name, family, local name, habit, parts used and utilization by the local tribal people for different human ailments. Among them plants were Herbs, Trees and Climbers. Majority of plant species were belonging to families of Acanthaceae, Fabaceae, Rutaceae, Liliaceae,and Solanaceae. Belonging to the 15 medicinal plant species are using for snake bite,diarrhea and dysentery.

Preliminary Phytochemical Study and Antimicrobial Activity of the Gum Extracts of Gardenia Gummifera Linn.

N. Narware, P.K.Mishra and P.N. Shrivastava

Gardenia gummifera Linn (Rubiaceae) is a medium sized tree growing all over the India. It is locally known as Dikamali. It is a gum resin oozing out from the leaf buds of these trees. It is marketed as cumbiresin. Its successive solvent extract viz. Petroleum ether (24.25% yield), Chloroform (21.68% yield), Ethanol (20.62% yield) and Water (18.50% yield) extracts of Gardenia gummifera was evaluated for antimicrobial activity, against Staphylococcus aureus (Maximum zone of inhibition in chloroform and aqueous extract was 18±0.1 mm.) and Escherichia coli (Maximum zone of inhibition in aqueous extract was 20±0.1 mm.) by disc diffusion method.Chloroform and aqueous extract have shown significant activity against both tested bacteria followed by ethanolic and petroleum ether extract. The inhibitory activity of the extracts was compared with the standard antibiotic Streptomycin.

A Review on Floral Biology of Tropaeolum Majus L.(Tropaeolaceae) an Ornamental Plant

Seema Tiwari, Rashmi Arnold, Arti Saxena, Sunil Pandey, Neeti Mishra and R. M. Mishra

Tropaeolum majus known as nasturtium is an ornamental plant. It belongs to tropaeolaceae family. It is used as a traditional medicinal plant containing high amounts of glucotropaeolin to treat infections of the urinary tract. Nasturtium action is exclusively on the lungs, kidneys and bladder, organs that deal intensively with the interplay of air and water. Leaf area of nasturtium plants had linearnegative influence of phosphorus-P and positiveinfluence of chicken manure. The highest yields of fresh and dried mass offruits were obtained under the highest doses of phosphorus-P and N contents in nasturtium flowers werenot influenced by treatments.

Ethno-Medical Claims of Clerodendrum Serratum (Linn.) Moon. - Bharangi

Praveen Kumar A. and K. Nishteswar

Ethno-botanical study gives a wide range of knowledge about a drug,which is used by different tribal people in different places. In Ayurveda also Acharya Charaka explained that one should consult the people who are goatherds, sheephards,cowherds and forest dwellers, those people living in forest to know about identification and application of the drug. An attempt is made to compile the ethno medicinal claims of Clerodendrum serratum (Linn.) Moon. from the various parts of the globe. According to Ayurveda, C. serratum is indicated for the treatment of Shwasa (difficulty in breathing), Jwara (fever), Shotha (inflammation) and Kasa (cough). In folk lore practice, it is indicated for fracture, skin diseases, toothache,snakebite, jaundice and wound etc. Claims on its use in veterinary medicine and as a pesticide are documented.

Nourishing and Curative Actions of Capparis Decidua Plant (Kair): A Review

Shilpi Singh, Sheel Sharma, Preeti Verma and Nidhi Agarwal

The arid plant Capparis decidua (Family: Capparidaceae) is commonly known as ‘Kair’ or ‘Ker’. It is a multi-use, xerophytic shrub, found in dry and hot arid regions. The fresh and dried fruits are consumed as a food in the form of vegetables and pickles. They also used as food additives. Fruits and other plant parts have excellent nutritional value. Kair is rich in carbohydrate, protein, fat, crude fibre, vitamin A and C. It also contains various phytochemicals including alkaloids,glycosides, terpenoids and fatty acids. Ethnomedically, the plant possesses laxative,digestive, analgesic, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, hypoglycaemic and diaphoretic activities. It also proves useful in rheumatism, gout, dropsy, asthma,ulcers, piles, cough and fever. This paper offers a general idea of Capparis decidua plant along with its nourishing and healing potential which make it a functional food.The review paper has been prepared by using systematic literature studies.

Assessment of Viability Characterisristics of Pea Seeds (Pisum Sativum L.) Stored In Genebank

Valbona Hobdari, Ndoc Faslia, Belul Gixhari and AlbanIbraliu

The study for assessment of genetic diversity and viability characteristics of pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) stored in genebank is carried out in genebank laboratory and Experimental field of Agricultural University of Tirana, during three years. The aim of the study was evaluation of the seed viability characteristics of pea accessions as part of legume germplasm collection in laboratory and field conditions. Twelve local forms of pea were analyzed for germination energy, germination ability, and percentage of germination in the field conditions. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) identified the variances of the principal components (PC) and the proportion of the total variance each factor accounts for. Cluster analysis range pea genotypes into two different cluster groups. There were all pea genotypes with germination ability in laboratory more than 80% (Standard level) included into the first group-cluster and all other pea genotypes with germination ability in laboratory less than 80% on the second group-cluster. PCA results show that there are two principal components PC1 and PC2 that account for 85.0% of the total variation are retained for further analysis. The percentages of total variation accounted for by each of the first two PCs were 62.1% for PC1 and 22.9% for PC2. Regression analysis show that the of germination ability loss of twelve pea genotypes in the field conditions range from 2% to 27%.

Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Evaluation on Leaves of Three Different Geographical Races of Hyptis suaveolens (L).Poit, Lamiaceae

Hameed Sultan Sheik Jahabar Ali and, Kandasamy Annamalai

The present studies deals with the Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical investigations on the leaves of three different geographical races of lamiaceae member of Hyptis suaveolens (L).Poit was carried out in three districts namely Chidambaram,Nagapattinam, and Tanjore, Tamil Nadu, India. The plant was reported to be of therapeutic value as a stimulant, carminative, antispasmodic, antirheumatic, antisuporitic bath, antiseptic, sudorific and galactagogue. It is also used for curing parasitical cutaneous disease, infection of uterus, in catarrhal condition, headache, stomach ache,bleeding of the nose. The anti-itching property present in leaves is used for folklore remedies. The major chemical constituents containing in H.suaveolens oil were Sabinene, β-Caryophyllene, 1-8-Cineole. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the organs and differential chemical tests were carried out. The morphology of the entire plant, anatomy of the leaves and the physic-chemical standards of the powder in the present study can be used to identify the crude drug. Preliminary phytochemical screening shows the presence of Volatile oil, Alkaloid, Phenolics, Tannin, Saponins, Protein, Carbohydrates, Phlobatannins, Flavonoids, Steroids, Terpenoids, Triterpenoids,Anthroquinone, and Glycoside. Extractive values as well as quantitative estimation of various phytochemical have been studied for different geographical races of Hyptis suaveolens (L).Poit

Synergistic Antimicrobial Potential of Ocimum Basilicum, Linn.

K. P. Jaiganesh, A. Anandakumar, R. Nepolean and G. Arunachalam

A cost effective antimicrobial agent for multi-drug resistant organisms,based on the synergistic activity of ofloxacin with ethanolic leaf extract of Ocimum basilicum Linn., was determined. In the present investigation, preliminary phytochemical screening and synergistic antimicrobial potential of the ethanolic leaf extract (50, 25 mg/ml) of Ocimum basilicum Linn., (Lamiaceae) were carried out against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria and fungi Candida albicans and Penicillium citrinum by detecting the zone of inhibition using agar well-diffusion method. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and steroids. Ethanolic leaf extracts (25, 50 mg/ml) and alcoholic extract with antibiotic exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against the various bacteria and fungi using the respective standard drug (10 μg/ml).

An Assortment of Herbal Plants in the Fabrication of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

D. Gnanasangeetha and D. SaralaThambavani

Synthetic reducing agents are not preferential for the fabrication of zinc oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications as traces of chemicals left unreacted in the progression can be harmful. Owing to copious interest this research explores with a short course on how to synthesize Zinc oxide nanoparticle in natural scale. The exploit of aqueous leaf extracts of Ocimum Sanctum, Acalypha Indica, Emblica Officinalis,Azadirachta Indica and Corriandrum Sativum in the biosynthesis of bioactive zinc oxide nanoparticle with aqueous solutions of zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide at ambient temperature. The aqueous extract can be used as a template to control particle size and stabilize ZnO nanoparticles. ZnO nanoparticle prepared by this green synthesis method using herbal plants exhibited a hexagonal wurtzite structure with various morphologies like, nanoflakes, nano cubes, nano rods, nano flowers and nano composites with a crystalline size of 81, 80 16, 51 and 66nm and particle size of 100 nm. To make the process environmentally viable the reaction was carried out under solvent free conditions.Formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles in different morphologies was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) patterns, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray Diffraction Patterns (XRD).The results confirmed that aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum Sanctum, Acalypha Indica,Emblica Officinalis, Azadirachta Indica and Corriandrum Sativum was a suitable green template to prepare homogeneous ZnO nanoparticles. Green methods are being good competent for the chemical procedures which are environment friendly and convenient.

Effect of carbon sources on micropropagation of Rosa Damascene Mill

Naveen Khairiya, Pavan Singh, Naresh Kumar, Sukhvinder Singh Purewal and RK Srivastava

Roses are very important plants from economic point of view. These are used in different industries such as perfumes and food industry. Roses also have medicinal values. One such species of Rosa genus is Rosa damascene Mill. Micropropagation is efficient technique for mass production of plants within short time. Carbon sources are important as far as successful plant micropropagation is concerned. Keeping this in view, present study was conducted to check the effect of carbon sources such as glucose and sucrose on micropropagation of Rosa damascene Mill.

Modern Aspect of Research and Development activities for Herbal Medicines of Ayurveda

Sameet Masand, Swati madan ,S.K. Balian

In India, Ayurveda is the oldest existing medical system is recognized by W.H.O and is widely practiced. Drug & Cosmetic Act 1940 govern the Ayurvedic,Unani, Siddha system of Medicine, which also incorporates the regulatory and recommendatory standards for these drugs. Research and development activities are necessary for pharmaceutical industry to face the serious challenges in the path of standardization for Herbal Medicines of Ayurveda. There is urgent need of research and development activities for herbal medicine of Ayurveda in order to meet international acceptance and quality assurance. Biological variation in crude drugs invites the need of standardization of herbal drugs which can be achieved by new researches and development activities. It includes modern quality assessment system, Reverse pharmacology which offers efficient development platforms for herbal formulations. The herbal medicinal products are complex mixtures, formulated from the naturally existing various substances like juices, gums, fatty oils, essential oils, exudates and extracts of plants. So, great efforts are required to ensure a constant and adequate quality. The research and development activities are performed by Reverse Pharmacology and by transferring all the information mentioned in the classical books of Ayurveda on modern aspects. The research and the standardization of Herbal Medicines of Ayurveda start with a well-defined plant material through a defined extraction procedure and ends with quantitative method for one or more active ingredients. Scientific method of identification and quality control operation for assessment of Herbal Medicines of Ayurveda can be developed on modern lines which lead for global acceptance of Ayurveda.