Research Paper in Herbal Chemistry

In Vitro Antioxidant Activityof HyptisSuaveolens (L),Poit.Leaves Extract of Three Different Geographical Races A Comparative Study

Hameed Sultan Sheik Jahabar Ali and, KandasamyAnnamalai

The ethanol extracts of three different geographical races of Hyptissuaveolens(L),poit. (H.suaveolens, Family: Lamiaceae) Cuddalore (Chidambaram), Nagapattinam,and TanjoreDist of Tamil Nadu, India. The Ethanol extract obtained by maceration extraction was examined for its antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activity was determined by means of the DPPH radical scavenging test, Total antioxidant (TAA) and superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SASA).Result from three methods indicate that the antioxidant activity of three different geographical races of H.suaveolens of ethanol extract from cuddalore (Chidambaram), Nagapattinam, and Tanjoredist of Tamil Nadu were time and concentration dependent. The antioxidant potential of H.suaveolens from cuddalore (Chidambaram), Nagapattinam, and Tanjore determined by the DPPH method expressed as IC50 was The half inhibition concentration (IC50) of plant extract THS, CHS, NHS and ascorbic acid were 49.72, 49.25, 50.35μg ml-1 and 34.91 μg ml-1 respectively. the antioxidant potential of H.suaveolens from cuddalore (Chidambaram),Nagapattinam, and Tanjore determined by the Total antioxidant assay (TAA) method expressed as IC50 was The half inhibition concentration (IC50) of CHS, NHS, THS and ascorbic acid were 49.40, 49.94, 49.59μg ml-1 and 42.41 μg ml-1 respectively. the antioxidant potential of H.suaveolens from cuddalore (Chidambaram), Nagapattinam, and Tanjore determined by the Superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SASA) method expressed as IC50 was The half inhibition concentration (IC50) of CHS, NHS and THS were 49.45, 49.58 and 49.73μg ml-1 andascorbic acid were 31.62μg ml-1 respectively.

Comparative study of ancient and modern procedures-Synthesis of Bhasma

Tambur PavaniK.Venkateswara Rao, Ch.Shilpa Chakra and Y.T.Prabhu

One of the oldest systems of medicine, study of ancient Ayurvedic literature indicates the use of minerals, gems and metals which have begun in 7th century BC. Bhasmas are unique Ayurvedic metallic preparations synthesized using herbal extracts (juices/fruits), which are widely recommended for treatment of various chronic ailments.In this context. Bhasmas are biologically produced nanoparticles and are consumed along with sources from milk products; this makes these elements easily assimilable, eliminating their harmful effects and enhancing their biocompatibility. There are many methods mentioned in different texts to prepare bhasmas (nanoparticles). In this paper comparative study had done on ancient and modern procedures for the synthesis of bhasma and to differentiate benefits and loses in each process.

Ethnomedicinal survey of Euphorbiaceae family plants used by the Malayalitribalsof Yercaud Hills, Eastern Ghats, Salem District, Tamil Nadu, India.

R. Rekka and S. Senthil Kumar

Yercaudhill is situated on the North Eastern part of the state of Tamil Nadu under Salem District. Ethnomedicinal field studies have been conducted in different villages of the Yercaud hills and recorded 14 Euphorbiaceae family species for the treatment of various ailments such as sepsis, head ache, Dental caries, tumor,Menstrual disorders, Jaundice, asthma, impotency in male, Diabetes, Whoop cough,eczema, erysipelas, mosaic, dysuria. The ethnomedicinal data local name, mode of preparation, medicinal uses were collected through questionnaire, interviews and discussions among the tribal practitioners in their local language. The 14 species of Euphorbiaceae family plants in use were Acalypha indica, Cicca acida, Emblica officianalis, Euphorbia heterophylla, Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia pulcherrima,Jatrophacurcas, Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus fraterus,Phyllanthus maderaspatensis, Phyllanthus urinaria, Phyllanthus virgatus, Ricinus communis,Tragia involacrata. In the present communication scientific and vernacular names of the plants along with the mode of preparation of medicines and dosage have been presented. The recorded plant species should be taken care of and also steps be taken for conservation as well as cultivation of these plant species.

Medicinal Plants Used In Ayurveda Available At Tehsil Joginder Nagar, District Mandi (H.P), India

Neelam Kumar

The present study has been conducted in different areas of tehsil Joginder Nagar, District Mandi (H.P.) during July 2013 to May 2014. During the course of study, 135 plant species of 116 genera and 71 families belonging to two different taxonomic groups i.e. angiosperms and gymnosperms were collected and preserved in the form of herbarium. Plants were identified with the help of various published flora and books and arranged according to Bentham and Hooker (1862-1883)1 system of classification. All plant enumerated along with their Botanical, Family, Local,English, and Ayurvedic name. A checklist has been prepared after comparing with the existing literature of Ayurvedic system of medicine.

Study on some doses of IBA concentration in the rooting of olive (Olea europaea L.)

Rakip Iljazi, Hairi Ismaili, Adem Salillari

This research yields the results of IBA doses for rooting the semi-lignified parts in 5 olive cultivars. The material was taken at the same foci of the inflorescence and treated with equal conditions, with the exception of IBA concentration with the Mist-propagation method. Green explants of the cultivars: “Kaninjot, Kryps Berati, Nisjot, Ullastra and Frantoio “, were stimulated with five IBA doses; C12H13NO2; (O, 2000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 ppm), Hydroalcolic solution, and they were kept under similar temperature, humidity and light conditions. The results showed that the dose 4000 ppm proved the best IBA effect, which rendered the highest rooting percentage in four cultivars. On the other hand the variety “Ullastra” had better correlations with IBA, at the dose of 6000 ppm. IBA in each concentration stimulated rooting percentage from 23% up to 46% more than Control. The olive cultivars reacted differently to rooting, because the Kaninjot cv showed higher rooting percentage (86.6%), whereas Kryps Berati cv manifested lower rooting percentage (36.7%). Thus, considering the achieved results, it was proved that the genetic factor is of great importance.

In vitro antibacterial activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of Cleome brachycarpa Vahl ex DC methanol extract and its sub-fractions

Fatemeh Pooryazdani Kojour1, Jinous Asgarpanah and Arash Mahboubi

Cleome brachycarpa is found all over the plains of Arabia, Egypt,Pakistan, India and south of Iran. The present study focused on the antibacterial activity of the total methanol extract of the flowering aerial parts of C. brachycarpa and its sub-fractions against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591,Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined. Following primarily antibacterial effect evaluation by agar well diffusion the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were determined by macro dilution method. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract and its sub-fractions were measured based on gallic acid and rutin equivalents (GAE and RE) respectively. The total methanol extract and sub-fractions showed inhibition activity on the all studied strains. S. epidermidis was observed as the most sensitive strain (MIC 15.62, MBC 31.25 mg/ml). The aqueous sub-fraction showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents (1.12 mg GAE/g and 26 mg RE/g) while the petroleum ether sub-fraction showed the lowest phenolic and flavonoid contents (0.55 mg GAE/g and 17 mg RE/g) and had the lowest antibacterial effect. The results may indicate that the phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the extract can be responsible agent for the antibacterial effect.These findings demonstrated that the plant is effective against the Gram positive and Gram negative strains and could be a potential source of effective natural antibacterial compounds against various bacteria.

Medicinally Important Floral Diversity Available at Tehsil Joginder Nagar, District Mandi (H. P.), India.

Neelam Kumar

The aim of present article is to provide information of medicinally important floral diversity. During the course of study, 50 plant species of 48 genera and 36 families’ belongto angiosperms were collected from different areas of tehsil Joginder Nagar.It lies between 31° 50' N and 76° 45' E in Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh. There are 222 villages under this tehsil. Out of these 36 families, 31 families belong to Dicotyledons and 05 belong to Monocotyledons.All plant specimens were preserved in the form of herbarium after drying in the folds of blotting sheets.The plants were identified and arranged according to Bentham and Hooker (1862-1883) system of classification1. Plants were enumerated along with their Botanical, Family and Localname. All plants were compared with the existing literature for their medicinal value. Local name of the collected plant specimens were recorded by interview and discussion with the local people.

Isolation of Triterpenoidal Saponin from Cassia fistula Linn.

V.K. Agnihotri, N. Agnihotri and Kapil K. Soni

Plant possess several secondary metabolites viz. flavonoid, glycoside, terpenoid,steroids, resin, tannin and saponins for their defense. In the present study, Triterpenoidal saponin was elucidated from plant Cassiafistula Linn by IR and 1HNMR analysis of the Fraction (CF-3) purified by column and thin layer chromatography of the extract obtained from this plant through the process of soxhletion. Maximum percentage yield (11.35%) was obtained in aqueous extract. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract was done and aqueous extract was found to be strong positive for the saponins. Rf value of the spots 1-5 was also measured after thin layer chromatography of the aqueous extract and was found to be maximum of spot 5 (0.95). Finally, by using spectroscopic data (IR, HNMR), the present study was successfully carried out for the isolation and characterization of triterpenoidal saponin (VA-1) named as Echinocystic acid – 3 – O – β – D – glucopyranosyl-(1→5) –O – β – D – xylofuranoside.

Qualitative Determination of Phytonutrients for some Medicinal Plants: Significant for Sunburn Protection

Madhulika Singh, Varsha Sharma and Asita Singh

This study is aimed to evaluate the phytonutrients present in the Petroleum ether and Hydro-alcoholic flower extract of Hibiscus-rosa-sinensis, Alcoholic and Aqueous root extract of Asparagus recemosus and 30% Methanolic and Aqueous flower extract of Butea monosperma using in vitro models. The extracts were evaluated for their organoleptic properties. The extractive values of different extracts were calculated for all three samples in which some extract showed maximum extractive values and some showed minimum. Petroleum ether extract of Hibiscus-rosa-sinensis flower was found to be positive for the presence of Carbohydrates and Terpenoids on the other hand the Hydro-alcoholic extract of Hibiscus-rosa-sinensis flower was showed the presence of Carbohydrates, Glycosides, Tannins and Phenols. Alcoholic and Aqueous extracts of Asparagus recemosus root were exhibited presence of Carbohydrates, Glycosides, Tannins Phenols, Terpenoids and Carbohydrates, Tannins, Phenols, Terpenoids, respectively. 30% Methanolic and Aqueous extracts of Butea monosperma flowers express presence of Carbohydrates, Glycosides, Alkaloids, Tannins and Glycosides, Tannins, Phenols, Terpenoids , Saponins respectively. Results indicated the presence of medicinal properties in these herbal extracts due to presence of secondary metabolites.

Root Drugs Available at Tehsil Joginder Nagar, District Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India

Neelam Kumar, Munish Sharma, Bandu Sharma

The aim of present study is to document the information of medicinally important roots that have been used in various herbal medicines, available at tehsil Joginder Nagar.Total 123 plant species of 109 genera and 58 families belong to angiosperms were collected from area of tehsil Joginder Nagar. Joginder Nagar lies between 31° 50' N and 76° 45' E in Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh and rich in floristic diversity due to variable climatic conditions. Out of these 58 families, 45 families belong to Dicotyledons and 13 Monocotyledons. All plant specimens were preserved in the form of herbarium. Plants were enumerated along with their Botanical, Family and Local name. All plants were compared with the existing literature for their medicinal value.

Antimicrobial Activity of Seaweeds Collected From Coastal Waters of Visakhapatnam

P. Yedukondala Rao, R. Sunitha Rani and P. Janakiram

The antimicrobial activity of the ethyl acetate, chloroform, petroleum spirit, ethanol and methanol extracts of eleven seaweed species collected from coastal waters of Visakhapatnam were screened against tested pathogenic bacteria Vibrio harveyii and Bacillus subtilis. Among five solvents ethanol and methanol were the most efficient solvents for preparation of extracts. Among eleven species of seaweeds Amphiroa fragilissima, Hypnea spinella, Gelidiopsis variabilis, Gracilaria corticata, Padina tetrastromatica and Dictyota dichotoma have exhibited maximum inhibition (IZ>25 mm) against test pathogens.

Ethno-phytotherapy of plants used for managing diarrhea in Abeokuta, Oguin State, Nigeria

M. Kadiri, A.W Ojewumi, D.T Adebiyi, M. Yahaya, S.A. Bala

An ethno-therapeutic survey of plants often used for management of diarrhea in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria was carried out. A total of 100 questionnaires were administered; 50 on traditional herbal practitioners and the other 50 on their patients. Study was carried out on plant parts used, methods of preparation, administration and dosage. A total of 35 anti-diarrhea plants belonging to 25 families were reported. The most frequently cited families were Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae. Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Combretaceae and cucurbitaceae. Manihot esceulentum (68.57%), Euphorbia hirta (62.89%), Jatropha curca, (54.29%) and Ricinus comniunis (51.43%) were the most used plants for diarrhea remedies. Leaves (51.43%), stem-barks (5.71%), roots (5.71%), seeds (5.71%), fruits (2.89%), whole plants (8.57%), combination of leaves and fruits (2.89%), leaves and roots (2.89%, leaves and barks (11.45%) and leaves and seed (2.89%) were plant parts reported being used for diarrhea herbal preparations.

Antibacterial properties of Euphorbia caducifolia

Durgesh Sharma1 and Sunil Dutt Shukla*2

Euphorbia caducifoliais commonly found all over the Rajasthan both in hilly and desert area. Latex of Euphorbia caducifoliais is used to cure skin infections, cutaneous eruption, leucoderma and applied to cuts and wounds for speedy healing. The latex of Euphorbia caducifolia was screened for antibacterial activity.