Research Paper in Herbal Chemistry

Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Salvia Officinalis leaf extract and its microbiological activity

Mostafa M.H. Khalil, Dina Y. Sabry, Amal S.A. Khidr

In this study, we report a use of the aqueous leaf extract of Salvia Officinalis as a bioreductant for AuCl4-to produce gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at room temperature.The prepared AuNPs were characterized through using Uv–visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal analysis. The effects of the concentration of the reductant (plant extract) and precursor solution (HAuCl4), the pH on the AuNPs morphology were studied. The results indicated that the size of the AuNPs and its morphology varied as the plant extract concentration changed. The XRD patterns showed a (1 1 1) preferential orientation of the AuNPs.FTIR spectra showed that the AuNPs were coated of bioorganic compounds. This indicated the possible role of biomolecules which responsible for capping and stabilization of the AuNPs. The antibacterial potential of synthesized AuNPs was compared with that of aqueous Salvia Officinalis (sage) leaf extract through a well diffusion method. The study revealed that extract concentrations at (1-5%) had no effect on the strains, while AuNPs significantly inhibited growth of Gram Positive bacteria (Bacillus subtillus, Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative bacteria (E. Coli and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa) and Fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger).AuNPs would be a good alternative therapeutic approach in future.

Phytochemical screening and anti-diabetic properties of Terminalia schimperiana Leaves on rats

Ojewumi, A.W, Kadiri, M

This study investigated hypoglycaemic effects of graded weights (15g, 25g and 35g) of Terminalia schimperiana leaf extracts boiled in 1litre of water at a dose of 1ml/kg once daily for fourteen days on blood glucose level of 28 albino rats whose glucose level exceeded 200mg/dl after alloxan-induction. Qualitative and quantitative screenings of phytochemical ingredients of Terminalia schimperiana leaf were also carried out. Data were subjected to Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with probability set at p<0.05. One millilitre (1ml/kg) of 15g Terminalia schimperiana leaf aqueous extracts did not produce significant (P>0.05) alterations in the blood glucose level compared with basal value. No significant difference (P>0.05) was observed in the sugar level of rats treated with 1ml/kg of 25g and 35g of the extracts. Highest percentage blood sugar reduction (61.48%) was recoded in rats treated with 1ml/kg of 35g, followed by 56.62 percent from glibenclimide. Alloxan induced rats treated with 15g, 25g and 35g at 1ml/kg sustained percentage weight loss of 48.07, 25.28 and 7.67 percent respectively compared with non-diabetic induced and un-induced but treated rats. Qualitative phytochemical screening investigation on Terminalia schimperiana indicated presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids, phenol, anthraquinone and Phlobatannin. Also, across the treatments, alkaloids showed no significant (P>0.05) difference at 15 and 25g. Flavonoids, saponnins, tannins, steroid, anthraquinone and phlobatannins were significantly (P<0.05) different across the treatments. Flavonoids (0.82mg/g) were the highest phytochemical contents recorded in this study. In conclusion,35g at 1ml/kg produced the best hypoglycaemic effect (61.48%) in diabetic induced rats in this study.

Ethnobiological survey of indigenous flora used for management of catarrh and arthritis in Abeokuta

M. Kadiri, A.W Ojewumi, A. Amuda, O.F Ogunderu and O.Y Fadimu

Survey of plants used for management of catarrh and arthritis in Abeokuta was conducted. A total of forty four plants belonging to 28 families were collated as being used for management of catarrh and arthritis. Annonaceae, euphorbiaceae, zingiberraceae and solanaceae were the most frequent plant families mentioned. Moringa oleifera (20.45%),Vernonia amygdalina (18.18%), Occimum gratissimum (15.91%), Crinum jagus (15.91%), Milicia excels (15.91%), Ricinus communis (15.91%), Pettveria alliaceae (15.91%), Cybopogon citratus (15.91%), Euphorbia hirta (13.64%), Tetrapleura tetraptera (13.63%) and Terminalia ivorensis (13.64%) were the most frequent mentioned plants. 56.82% of plants were used as leaves, 6.82% as bulbs, 22.27% as leaves, stem, root, leaves, stem-bark, roots and seeds, 4.55% as rhizomes while whole parts of 20.45% of the plants were used for catarrh and arthritis herbal preparations. 75.00% of the plants were reported being used when they were freshly collected while 25.00% were being used both when they were freshly collected and in dry form. The most commonly employed solvents were water, hot pap, local gin, lime water and oil palm as represented by 84.09%, 2.27%,6.82%, 2.27%, and 4.55%. Infusion (4.55%), decoction (54.55%), powder (4.55%), paste (25.00%), poultice (9. 09%) and chewing (2.27%) were reported for catarrh and arthritis herbal preparation methods. Largest percentage of the plants (72.73%) was cultivated at home garden and also available at various markets in the study area while 22.79% were found mainly in the forests.

Biological Activities of Dalbergia sissoo Leaves in Different Models

Zahoor Ahmed, Hemant Rathore, Savita Marmat, Taj N Qureshi and Sharad Shrivastava

Filtered crude aquous extract of fresh leaves of Dalbergia sissoo is used.Onion bulbs, Allium cepa (2n=16) are used. Roots grew well in tap water (control) but progressive decline in mean root length is noticed in bulbs grown in extract of D.sissoo leaves at concentrations ranging from 10mg/ml to 200 mg/ml. Root tips did not reveal any morphological (shape and color) alteration (experiment-1). No chromosomal aberrations or abnormal mitosis could be noticed in the squashes of growing root tips exposed to leaves extract (experiment-2). Results indicated only antimitotic activity. It lacks cyto or genotoxic action in Allium models. Pond snails, Planorbis species revealed 50% mortality at 2.5 mg/ml concentration and 100% thereafter. This confirms molluscicidal action. Larvae of mosquito Culex fatigans revealed 50% mortality at 50 mg/ml level and 100% thereafter. It reflects larvicidal action. Isoflavons found in the leaves of D. sissoo are held responsible for the observed biological activities.

Isolation of Active Principle Anonaine from Annona squamosa Linn Leaves Extract as Bio-pesticide

S. K. Bisen, S.K. Bansal, and R.D.Ahirwar

Annona squamosa Linn of Family Annonaceae, commonly known as “Custard apple” is a bio-pesticidal agent of plant origin. About 2 kg fresh leaves of A. squamosa, collected from surrounding area of Vidisha was shade dried in laboratory and pulverized to powder, then used for extract isolation by using Soxhlet apparatus. Percentage yield of A. squamosa extract was calculated i.e. 12.90 % only. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant A. squamosa extract was done by applying various tests. It was observed that methanolic extracts was found to be strong positive for Saponins,Flavonoids, Phenolic compounds, Glycosides, Lipids, Proteins and Alkaloids and negative for steroids. Thin layer chromatography of Annona squamosa plant extract was done using Ethyl acetate: Chloroform: Methanol (8:1:1) solvent system and 2 spots were obtained which was brown and light yellow in color and Rf value of each spot was measured 0.21 and 0.25, respectively. During TLC color characterization of the different spots were also observed in visual, UV light and Iodine chamber. Column chromatography of Annona squamosa plant extract was carried out using Ethyl acetate:Chloroform: Methanol (8:1:1) menstrum and 2 fractions were obtained. Fraction As-1 (1.10gm) was found to be minimized and Fraction As-2 was found to be maximum (1.40gm) which was used for insecticidal activity and an active principle Anonaine was elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis (IR, UV and NMR).

Essential Oil Constituents from two types of Psidium guajava Leaves from Bangladesh

Katrun Nada, Jasim Uddin Chowdhury, Md Nurul Huda Bhuiyan and Matiar Rahim

Essential oils from leaves of deshi and kazi variety of Psidium guajava from Bangladesh were analyzed by GC-MS. The major components in deshi variety were cycloheptane,4-methylene-1-methyl-2-(2-methyl-1-1-propen-1-yl)-1-vinyl (51%), alloaromadendrene oxide (14.5%), bicyclo [5.2.0] nonane, 2- methylene- 4,8,8- trimethyl-4-vinyl (12.1%), trans-nerolidol (6.9%) and in kazi variety were trans-nerolidol (22.1%), α-pinene (14.8%), caryophyllene (12.5%), δ-cadinol (10.4%), 1,4,7-cycloundecatriene,1,5,9,9-tetramethyl (9.5%), globulol ( 8.3%).

Evaluation of Some Toxic Principles of Banana (Musa sps.)Plant

A.S. Hembade and V. V. Niras

Study was undertaken to evaluate some anti- nutritional factors of banana (Musa sps.) plant and their parts. Samples of whole banana plant (Musa sps.) and their parts viz, leaves (bottom leaves but not sencenced), pseudostem, sheath, rhizome, stalk, flower bud, and sucker were does not content the toxic factors such as HCN, Glycosides, Alkaloids except tannin. The observed tannin content was 2.38 ± 0.04, 2.54 ± 0.05 , 1.66± 0.08, 1.00± 0.09, 2.08± 0.07, 1.46±0.08, 1.82±0.01 and 2.48±0.01% on dry matter basis in whole banana plant, leaves, pseudo stem, sheath, rhizome, stalk, flower bud and sucker, respectively and which is well within the tolerant limit for ruminants. Hence it may be used as feed for ruminants.

Studies on phytochemical, antibacterial properties and synthesis of silver nano particles from the floral extract of Mesua ferrea L.

N. Lakshmi, E. Jenitta Emima Packiyam, P. Rama Bhat  and K. Jayade

The main objective of the present investigation was to analyse phytochemical constituents and preparation of silver nanoparticles from the flower extracts of Mesua ferrea, and their antibacterial activity. The aqueous and methanol extracts of flowers were prepared using water and methanol as solvents. The phytochemical analysis of the extracts was carried out by following standard protocols. The flower extract showed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, resins and tannins. The dried flower powder was mixed with the aqueous solution of 1mM silver nitrate solution and synthesized silver nano particles by incubating it at 95ºC for one hour. The colour change in the solution from light brown to dark brown colour was due to surface plasmon vibration. Maximum absorption peak was observed at 358 nm and the bio-molecules involved in the reduction of silver ions was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the size of nanoparticles was observed by SEM study. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were hexagonal in shape with the diameter range of 80-120nm. The diameter size confirms the presence of silver nanoparticles. Anti-microbial activity was carried out with the aqueous, methanol and AgNO3 floral extracts against 7 bacterial species which were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp. and Streptococcus sp. The aqueous extract was found to be more susceptible to all the organisms than the methanol and AgNO3 extract.The methanolic extract showed that at 150μl it had maximum zone of inhibition for all the tested bacterial strains, while 50 μl showed lower zone of inhibition. Therefore, the silver nano particles from the flower extract can be used for treatment of diseases caused by bacterial pathogens.

Evaluation of Some Components Minerals Vegetable Leaf:Leaves of Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae) and Gynandropsis gynandra (Capparidaceae) purchased on the Abidjan market

Alexis Drogba Sahoré and Levry Abouattier

Leaves from vegetable harvesting (Abelmoschus esculentus and Gynandropsis gynandra) were purchased, on the market of Abobo, Abidjan, and were  analyzed in relation to their mineral composition (Ca, Na, Mg, K, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn). And the results showed a high content of macro-nutrients, Calcium (Ca: from  29.02 to 30.53 mg / g dry matter) and Magnesium (Mg: from 10.08 to 11.26 mg / g dry matter) in the leaves of Abelmoschus esculentus and Potassium (K: from 50.23 to 50.65 mg / g d.m) in the leaves Gynandropsis gynandra. Micro-nutrient Iron in Gynandropsis gynandra has high contents in the leaves of Abelmoschus esculentus (Fe: from 1.09 to 1.14 mg / g d.m). These leaves picking vegetables are an important dietary supplement in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa