Research Paper in Herbal Chemistry

Column Chromatography and Infra-red Spectroscopy of Extract of Icacina Trichantha Tuber

M. H. Shagal

The dried ground sample of Icacina trichantha tuber was extract successively with hexane and methanol to yield the respective extracts. The methanol extract was diluted with distilled water and then partitioned with ethylacetate to obtain ethylacetate fraction. The extracts were subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC). The ethylacetate fraction was subsequently subjected to column chromatography. Column chromatography of the ethylacetate fraction yielded one hundred and sixty-five fractions. Similar fractions (monitored by TLC) were pooled together to give seven fractions. Two of the fractions gave white crystalline solid. The IR values of the functional groups in the compound isolated from the ethylacetate fraction correlate with that of Icacinol and the melting point was found to be 240 0C.

Enrichment of antimicrobial activity of Phoenix dactylifera fruit, using probiotics

Suvro Saha and John Barnabas

Phytochemical, Antimicrobial And Toxicity Studies Of Ethanolic Leaf Extract Of Phyllanthus AmarusThonn And Schum (Euphorbiacea)

U.T.Mamza, O.A.Sodipo, I.Z.Khan and I. A. Gulani

This study investigated the phytochemical composition, antimicrobial activities and acute toxicity studies of ethanolic leaves extract of Phyllanthus amarus. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, anthroquinones, steroids and carbohydrates. Antimicrobial sensitivity test using eleven human pathogenic microorganisms across various concentrations showed that P. amarus has bactericidal effect on two pathogens namely; Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans. The extract also demonstrated significant inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes,Candida albicans and Klebsiella pneumonia. The result of acute toxicity of CEE of P.amarus on the wistar albino rats shows that the LD50 is calculated to be 1720 mg/kg using arithematic method of Karbar 1931 as modified by Aliu and Nwude1982 which translates that the plant is safe for human consumption.

Standardization and Comparative Efficacy of Wound Healing Product Septiloc

Chaudhary Manu and Naithani Vijay

Quality assurance of any herbal product can be ensured by proper quality control of the herbal ingredients and by means of good manufacturing practice. We have developed a simple scheme for the standardization of Septiloc, an innovative polyherbal formulation for diabetic leg ulcer, burns, bedsores, venous ulcer, arterial ulcer, skin infections, traumatic wounds, post-operative wounds etc. by using physio-chemical parameters and TLC fingerprinting. The present study deals with standardization of ingredients of Septiloc and comparison of it's efficacy with a silver colloid based commercial product (SCG), on the healing of wounds. The Septiloc treated wounds healed much faster as indicated by improved rate of contraction and a decreased period of epithelialization. Biochemical studies revealed a significantly increase in Hydroxy proline, Hexosamine, Super Oxide Dismutase and also reduction in Lipid PerOxide in the granulation tissues of Septiloc treated wounds when compared with control and SCG.

Bacterial Isolation and Identification from Burn Wound Infections and Studying Their Antibiotic Susceptibility

Abdulrahman S. Naji, Mawhoob N. Alkadasi, Gamal A. A-Ameri Abdulsalam Alshami and Abdulbaset A.Zaid

The present study was carried out to determine the bacterial isolates and study their antibiotic susceptibility in case of burned wound infections. 50 burn wound swabs were taken from patients, who presented invasive burn wound infection from both sex with age from one month to forty years, admitted to Al-thawra hospital from March 2014 to August 2014.The most common single isolated pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus found to be the most common isolate (20%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16%), Escherichia coli (16%), Streptococcus ssp.(8%), Proteus ssp.(8%), and the most mix isolated pathogen was Pseudomonas aeruginosa & Staphylococcus aureus (16%) and Escherichia coli& Staphylococcus aureus (8%). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out to the bacterial isolates against 10 antibiotics, in which ciprofloxacin was found to be the most effective drug against most of the Gram-negative and Gram-positive isolates followed by chloramphenicol , while amikacin and gentamicin were less sensitive to few isolates as well as Ampicilline, as compared with the other two, mentioned previously. Co. Trimoxazole was the worst at all.

Evaluation of Antioxidant and Radical-Scavenging Activities of Centella Asiatica Plant Extracts

Neha Rai, R.C. Agrawal and Ashfaq Khan

The extract of Centella asiatica has chemopreventive effect in animal modelsystems. In the present investigation, the extracts of Centella asiatica was furtherevaluated for their antioxidant GSH and radical-scavenging activities. These plantextract showed antioxidant activity, as measured by estimating reduced glutathione inliver and different tissues, and showed radical-scavenging activity in both GSH andFenton Assay. The extracts of Centella asiatica showed very strong radicalscavengingactivity in both the assays. However, extracts of A. paniculatus and S. fusiformisshowed moderate radical-scavenging activity. The differential and antioxidant activityof these plant extracts observed may be assigned to different chemical constituentspresent in the different plant extracts. The result of the present investigation indicatesthat the antioxidant mechanism GSH aqueous extract of CA brought the antioxidantsystem to normal level indicating that it exhibit antioxidant property in the tissue ofpapilloma bearing mice of different groups, which was measured in blood and liver oftumour bearing mice. % of reduced glutathione (GSH) was increased in the liver ofmice and free-radical scavenging appears to be likely mechanisms of chemopreventionby these plant extracts. Centella asiatica significantly scavenge the hydroxyl radicalgenerated by EDTA/H2O2 when compared with ascorbic acid. The percentagescavenging of Centella asiatica was increased in adose dependent manner.IC50 value ofCentella asiatica was 600μg/mL and Vit.C 25μg/mL. It also indicates that Centellaextract exhibit significant antioxidant activity.

In-vitro study of anti-oxidant activity and phytochemical analysis of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. Corolla & Calyx

Haroop Guleria & Meenakshi Vaidya

Free radicals induce numerous diseases by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Ithas been reported that numerous plant extracts have antioxidant activities to scavenge freeradicals. Hibiscus rosa- sinensis is extensively cultivated as ornamental plant, commonlyknown as Hibiscus or China rose. Many plant parts are proven to possess antioxidant activity.In the present study, the antioxidant properties of methanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensisbelonging to Malvaceae was studied.

Individual and synergistic effects of Aegle marmelos and Cressa cretica against Staphylococcus aureus

Deepa Verma, Smita Phatak & Meenakshi Vaidya

Medicinal plants have gained much importance than English medicine.Each parts of the medicinal plant have a peculiar characteristic in its own manner.Medicinal plants have no side effects when used for treatment of particular disease.The present study focuses on the significant effects of Aegle marmelos (Bael) andCressa cretica (Rudanti) extracts against Staphylococcus aureus. Aegle marmelos andCressa cretica are the two medicinal plants and Staphylococcus aureus is a Grampositive organism. The antibacterial effects of these plants were studied solely and insynergism among each other. The parts of the plant that were used were leaves andfruits of Bael and fruit of Rudanti in powdered form. Initially, the extracts of theabove plant parts were subjected to phytochemical screening and then the effects ofthese plant extracts were studied using Agar well diffusion assay. Zone of inhibitionof different treatment groups were measured and compared. Statistical comparison ofsole extract and synergetic extract was seen. It was found that combined orsynergistic effects were greater as compared to individual effects.

Pharmacognostic evaluation of Carica papaya L. leaves with reference to sexual dimorphism

Deepa Verma and Meenakshi Vaidya

The search for newer sources of drugs has become a global challenge toresearch institutions, pharmaceutical companies and academia. Medicinal plants havebeen a source of medicine in virtually all cultures. Plants have an advantage of beingthe most effective and cheaper alternative source of drugs. The chemical constituentspresent in them are the part of the physiological functions of living flora and hencethey are believed to have better compatibility with the human body. Plants withcomplex phytochemical mixtures have advantage over single molecules in treatingsevere diseases, with an added advantage of being devoid of severe toxic side effects.A comparative study of Carica papaya L. leaves with reference to physicochemicalevaluation and phytochemical screening of male and female plants was carried out.The study showed significant results in female plant as compared to male plants

Mosquito larvicidal efficacy of a novel phenethylamide derivative isolated from Spilanthes mauritiana DC.        

Prathibha Kunnumel Prabhakaran, Sowmya Palahally Thimmappa and Vijayan Valiakottukal Achuthan

With an increase in awareness about environment and sustainable development,natural products are gaining importance in research due to its biodegradable nature andrenewable nature. Therefore the present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy ofextracts from Spilanthes mauritiana (Family: Compositae) against the larvae of Anophelesstephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus employing standard WHO procedureat Mysore. The ethyl acetate extract of the flower was found to possess appreciablelarvicidal property with an LC50 of 6.8ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus followed by 11.5ppmfor An. stephensi and 14.1ppm for Ae. aegypti. Similarly the LC90 value for Cx.quinquefasciatus was 13.67ppm, 28.1 and 28.9ppm for An. stephensi and Ae. aegyptirespectively. Bioassay guided fractionation through TLC and Column chromatographylead to the isolation of a highly effective compound, namely Phenethylamide. Thus amongthe three species, Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae exhibited significant susceptibility p<0.0l interms of LC50 values being 0.55ppm followed by 1.65ppm for An. stephensi and 2.83 forAe. aegypti. Similarly the LC90 value for Cx. quinquefasciatus was 1.63ppm as against 2.24and 3.51ppm for An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti respectively. From the present investigation,it is evident that the active compound isolated has promising larvicidal activity. Hence,such botanicals of local importance can reduce the application of synthetic of insecticidesand also the environmental hazards

Isolation, identification and characterization of Gallicacid from leaves of Terminalia chebula (Retz)

S.Sree Gayathri, Dr. Racheal Regi Daniel, Dr.Shenbagaradhai

Engineering modern techniques are used in various fields like drug and medicine. The use of plants as medicines predates in print human history. Medicinal plants are in all way having its own immense importance in current era. However, there are a lot of concerns about the conventional medicine in areas of efficacy, safety and quality. The efficacy and safety of any pharmaceutical product was determined by the bioactive compounds which it contains. Terminalia chebula was a deciduous tree used as traditional medicines. Secondary metabolites like hydrolysable tannins, gallic acid (3, 4, 5-trihydroxy benzoic acid) were isolated from the ethyl acetate leaf extract of Terminalia chebula. Isolation was carried out by different chromatographic techniques (TLC,Column chromatography and HPLC). The characterization and identity of compounds was verified through various physical and spectroscopic methods like UV-Visible spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy and structural elucidation by Proton and Carbon NMR Spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis. Estimation of Total phenolic content and Total Tannic acid content of ethyl acetate leaf extract of Terminalia chebula was found using UV-Visible spectroscopy at λ max 725 nm. The results revealed the presence of gallicacid (bioactive compound) which was liable for antimicrobial, antioxidant and therapeutic activities against several diseases. This method of isolation and identification was easy, reliable and non-expensive.

Phytochemical analysis & anti-microbial activity in crude ethanolic leaf extract of Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae).

Ch.Subbalakshmi, G.Meera bai and T.Pullaiah.

Helicteres isora linn, of the family Sterculiaceae is an ayurvedic herb and is distributed widely in forests throughout India. Almost all parts are used traditionally. The plants are used as an anti-gastro spasmodic, anti helmintic, anti-spasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-diarrheal, anti-dysenteric, and as a tonic after child birth, to cure wounds, ulcers, hemorrhages and diabetes. The leaves after collection, authentication and drying, was extracted with ethanol by using soxhlet extractor. The present study was aimed to study phytochemical analysis and evaluate the antimicrobial properties of ethanolic leaf extract of Helicteres isora linn. Anti-microbial activity of ehanolic leaf ectract was investigated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger. The study revealed high inhibition zone against P.aeruginosa (2.4mm.) than S.aureus (2.8mm.) and A.niger (1.4mm.). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of steroids, triterpenes, saponins, alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides and polyphenols. Triterpenoidal saponins are absent.

Phytochemicals and Hazardous Metal Contents in Unregistered Herbal Drugs sold in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana.

K. Sarpong, E. Dartey and I. Owusu-Mensah

Sixty (60) unregistered herbal drug samples sold as cures for several ailments were collected from six communities (Atonsu, Bomso, Twumduase, Breman, Tafo and Bantama) in the Kumasi Metropolis and assessed. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry was employed to determine hazardous metal levels and concentrations expressed in μgg-1. Standard methods for qualitative determination of secondary metabolites in samples were applied to the ethanolic extract. Arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) contents observed in the samples showed amounts lower than the World Health Organization (WHO) Maximum Permissible Limits (MPL) for the respective metals and pose no health threat to consumers. The range of As, Pb and Zn concentrations in the samples from the six communities studied were: As (0.00 - 0.657μgg-1) , Pb (0.0013- 0.553 μgg-1) , Zn (0.014 μgg-1 - 0.785 μgg-1) for Atonsu; As (0.133 μgg-1 - 0.650 μgg-1) , Pb (0.005 μgg-1 - 0.173 μgg-1) , Zn (0.00 - 0.817 μgg-1) for Bomso; As (0.033 μgg-1 - 1.545 μgg-1) , Pb (0.00-0.776 μgg-1) , Zn (0.051 μgg-1 - 0.423 μgg-1) for Twumduase; As (0.00 - 0.153 μgg-1) , Pb (0.023 μgg-1 - 0.430 μgg-1) , Zn (0.002 μgg-1 - 0.867 μgg-1) for Tafo; As (0.017 μgg-1 - 1.33 μgg-1) , Pb (0.00-2.067 μgg-1) , Zn (0.00 - 0.513 μgg-1) for Breman; As (0.00 - 0.620 μgg-1) , Pb (0.00 - 1.267 μgg-1) , Zn (0.013 μgg-1 - 0.536 μgg-1) for Bantama. Thesamples contained no alkaloids. However, overall they contained 75% polyphenols, 8% flavonoids, 42% steroids, 48% saponins and 28% triterpenes

Shelf –life Study of Nanocoated Zip & Lock Covers with Tomato Puree (Solanumlycopersicum) against EnteropathogenicBacteria

M.Ramya, M. Sylvia Subapriya, Nalini Balakrishnan,

Packaging plays an imperative role in food processing which makes food free from microbes, biological and chemical changes, thereby, increasing shelf life of foods. Enteropathogenic bacteria such as E.coli, Salmonella and Shigella causesdiarrhoea. As per the literature survey, not much of the research work is done on Zip& lock covers. Hence, present aims to study the “Shelf –life Study of Nanocoated Zip &Lock Covers with Tomato Puree against Enteropathogenic Bacteria” such as E.coli(MTCC-40), Salmonella enterica (MTCC 3219) and Shigelladysenteriae (PSGIMS&R) with storage period of ten days. Among all the four medicinal plants, antioxidant activity activity of Glycyrrhizaglabra was 520 μg and Z potential of -24.7.No microbial growth was observed from 0th day to 6th day with Nanocoated Zip & lock covers inoculated with enteropathogenic organisms. From 0 day to 10th day, Nanocoated Zip & Lock covers showed that 37.67 percentage inhibition against E.coli (MTCC40), 63.33 percentage microbial inhibition against S.enterica (MTCC3219) and 83 percentage microbial inhibition against S.dysenteriae(PSGIMSR)respectively. Therefore, antimicrobial activity of these nanoparticles is due to presence of high concentration of antioxidants and Zeta potential which would add up the steric action of nanoparticle towards  Enteropathogenicbacteria. Hence, these nanoparticles could be employed in different food packages to increase the antimicrobial property.