Research Paper in Herbal Chemistry

Phytochemical analysis & anti-microbial activity in crude ethanolic leaf extract of Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae).

Ch.Subbalakshmi,G.Meerabai and T.Pullaiah.

Helicteres isora Linn, of the family Sterculiaceae is an ayurvedic herb and is distributed widely in forests throughout India. Almost all parts are used traditionally. The plants are used as an anti-gastro spasmodic, anti helmintic, anti-spasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-diarrheal, anti-dysenteric, and as a tonic after child birth, to cure wounds, ulcers, hemorrhages and diabetes. The leaves after collection, authentication and drying, was extracted with ethanol by using soxhlet extractor. The present study was aimed to study phytochemical analysis and evaluate the antimicrobial properties of ethanolic leaf extract of Helicteres isora. Anti-microbial activity of ethanolic leaf extract was investigated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger. The study revealed high inhibition zone against P.aeruginosa (2.4mm.) than S.aureus (2.8mm.) and A.niger (1.4mm.). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of steroids, triterpenes, saponins, alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides and polyphenols. Triterpenoidal saponins are absent.

Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Activity of Methanolic Extract of Grapefruit Rind

Ghada M. Ahmed, Mahgoub S. Eltohami, H.N. Adurahman ; Elnazeer.Hamedelniel, H.N. Azhari andAbdelmonem M. Abdellah

The grapefruit rind is being used traditionally in Sudan to control diabetes mellitus. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of grapefruit rind both methanolic extract and fractions on the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of adult albino rats and to characterize the active chemical constituents. Results demonstrated that oral administration of the crude methanolic extract of grapefruit rind and its fractions to glucose loaded-rats' type-II exhibited a significant reduction of blood glucose level in all treated groups. Whereas in type-I diabetic rats, methanolic extract was produced dose-dependent significant reductions (P<0.05). Cholesterol, urea and triglycerides levels of the treated rats also were decreased. The mechanism of action of grape fruit rind as hypoglycemic agent in type-I may be due to regeneration of beta-cells, which observed as an increase of insulin production during the experiment. A novel new method was devolped by this study to isolate saponins using excess ethyl acetate. Flavonoids, triterpenoids, saponnins, deoxy sugars and tannins are photochemical found to be active components in  the extract. It is strongly suggested that grapefruit rind to be a natural alternative for diabetes mellitus treatment.

Development and Evaluation of Functional Food Mixes on Nutritional and health Status of Diabetic Handloom Weavers

Ms. R. Usharani and Dr. U.K. Lakshmi

Handloom sector plays a very important role in the Indian economy by providing direct employment to greater than 65 lakhs of people in weaving activities in India. Weavers are the major population who suffer from health problems such as respiratory problems, diabetes mellitus, musculoskeletal disorders, hypertension as well as disabilities such as permanent hearing loss due to exposure to noise. The present study was carried out to assess the socio economic conditions, nutritional and health status of handloom weavers. Based on the prevalence of Diabetes mellitus functional food mixes were developed using carrot, tomato, cauliflower leaves, amla, flax seed and soya supplemented for four months. A control group was also maintained. The impact of supplementation was evaluated using anthropometric measurements (height, weight and BMI), biochemical parameters (Hb, fasting and post prandial blood glucose) during the pre and post intervention period. Overall findings revealed that supplementation of functional food mixes to handloom weavers improved their nutritional and health status and increased the work output and nutritional knowledge.

Study on some Greek and Spanish olive varieties in the Albanian climate

Hairi Ismaili, Vasil Anagnosti, Zaim Veshaj, Jorgo Nikolla

This study presents the evaluation of suitability of some genotypes of the Greek and Spanish olives in the climate of Albania. The Greek genotypes are: Koroneiki, Cunatis, Kallamon, Kukurela, Halneiqis, Amigdanolia, and the Spanish ones: Picual, Gordales and Manzanilla. Analysis included 23 morphological characters and PCA analysis defined 6 predominant characters of the variation. Cluster analysis defined 3 groupings of high morphological resemblance. The genotypes displayed a standard mean of suitability for the new geographical conditions and preserved the phenotypic traits of their origin. Morphological variables reflected the genotype-environment correlation and the degree of discrepancy, thus constituting the main cause for the small phenotypic variations. The genotypes displayed different thermal constants (CT). Referring to the Maturity Index (Im=4) and Energetic Index Ie, the genotypes are classified in three groups for the sum of active temperature and the number of days from efflorescence to ripeness. Suitability of genotypes within the environment is 93%, while the discrepancy environment-genotype was calculated 7 %. Genotypes Koroneiqi, Cunatis, Cucurela displayed better suitability and deserve to be widespread in the Albanian climate.