Research Paper in Herbal Chemistry

Ameliorative effect of Vitex negundo Linn. on Doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in developing chick embryo">

Hitesh U. Shingadia and Meenakshi Vaidya

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a broad spectrum cytotoxic agent useful in cancer chemotherapy. The drug is known to cause dose-dependent cardiomyopathy mediated by disruption of mitochondrial energetic. In the present study the mechanism of uptake of Doxorubicin & the ameliorative effect of leaf extract of Vitex negundo Linn. was investigated in developing chick embryos. The significant protection against DOX-induced cardiomyopathy by leaf extract was evident from the histopathological findings observed by light microscopy. Group I (control) & III (extract control) did not reveal any damage & necrosis of cardiac myocytes. However Group II (DOX treated) revealed significant congestion & mononuclear cellular infiltration. The reduced pathological changes in treated Group IV & V (Leaf extract +DOX) indicate ameliorative effect of herbal drug. The protective effect of leaf extract of Vitex negundo Linn. is evidenced by significant restoration of antioxidants for embryo protection.

Pharmacognostic Studies of Helicteris isora L. Fruit

Meenakshi Vaidya

Helicteres Isora L. belongs to family Sterculiaceae. It is commonly called Kesari, Murud sheng. This plant is of medicinal importance. It is used an astringent, analgesic, anthelmintic and antidiuretic. The roots and stem barks are expectorant, demulcent, astringent, constipating, lactifuge and antiglactagogue. They are useful in colic, scabies, biliousness, thoracic empyema, gastric problems, diabetes, diarrhoea and dysentery. The plant contains a 4-quinolone alkaloid, malatyamine, an antidiarrhoeal principle. The anatomical and pharmacognostic studies of Helicteris isora are useful in standardization of the plant material as the plant is medicinallyimportant. The agar cup diffusion method was used to check the antibacterial activity of the extract.

Ksharsutra - A Phytopharmacological Appraisal and Method of Preparation">

L .D. Barik, K.K.Ratha,M.Das and J. Hazra

Ksharasutra is a unique therapeutic of Ayurveda effective in Fistula-in-ano (Bhagandara). It is widely practised in Ayurveda system of medicine and also accepted by the modern surgeons for its efficacy and least chance of recurrence.Conventional Ksharasutra mentioned in Ayurveda is linen thread coated with the latex of Snuhi (Euphorbia nerifolia L.), alkali of Apamarga (Achyranthes aspera L.) and powder of turmeric (Zingiber officinale L.). Ksharasutra made up of Guggulu instead of Latex of Snuhi, is also an alternative to Conventional Ksharasutra. The standard operating procedure (SOP) of Ksharasutra preparation has been developed and well-practiced in India.

Pharmaceutical Alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus,Detection and Mapping of Associated QTL">

Kanika Barik and Shweta Sao

The periwinkle [Catharanthus exclusive source of the anticancer drugs nvincristine and vinblastine and other pharmaceutical molecules vindoline, catharanthine, ajmalicine, and serpentine. The study consisted of construction and use of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population in the segregational analyses of DNA markers and the consequent genetic linkage map, characterization of variability and associations between six traits- V (VL), C (CL), VB+VC (VBL) contents in leaves and C (CR), A (AR) and S (SR) contents in roots, in two environments and identification and place quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the high expression of traits on the map. The intra-organ correlations of leaf and root traits were positive and significant. All the traits except AR were highly heritable The RIL-generated genetic map led to identification of 20 QTLs for 6 traits (5, 4, 1, 4, 2, and 4 QTLs, respectively, for CL, VL, VBL, CR, AR, and SR) by the use of single marker regression, simple interval mapping and composite interval mapping approaches. QTLs were detected only on 4 of the 8 LGs. QTL for the same or different traits were mapped in clusters or singularly. 

A Comparative Nutritional Analysis of Red Amaranth (Amaranthus Tricolor L.) on Refrigerating and Non-Refrigerating Condition

Md. Ziaul Amin, Md. Shahariea Karim Josy, A. M. Swaraz and Mohammed A. Satter

Red amaranth is one the most common useful leafy vegetables that are highly perishable food items and always needs special processing treatments to lengthen its storage time. The Nutritional content may varies during this storage time. Refrigerator is usually used to preserved red amaranth  Amaranthus tricolor L.). But we did not know about the nutrient value of the freezing red amaranth. Therefore, this study focused on to assess the variation of nutrient contents at different refrigerating time. In this study, red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) are collected from the same field in the same time and was kept in refrigerator at 4°C for 3, 7 and 15 days after emergence. Fresh red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) was used as a control. The sun drying and blending methods were used to preparing both the fresh and refrigerating samples respectively. Samples of the red amaranth were analyzed to the measurement of moisture, ash, protein, fat and minerals by AOAC standard procedures. The moisture, ash and carbohydrate contents of red amaranth that were analyzed under fresh condition, 3 days, 7 days and 15 days refrigeration were 92.65%, 92.65%, 92.63% and 92.61% ; 0.62% ,0.63%, 0.64% and 0.66% ; 5.21%, 5.19%, 5.19% and 5.17% respectively. The fiber, rotein and fat contents were 0.92%, 0.94%, 0.96% and 0.96%; 056%, 0.56%, 0.55% and 0.54%; 0.12%, 0.12%, 0.11% and 0.11% respectively. The Na, K and Ca contents of amaranth in fresh, 3 days, 7 days and 15 days refrigeration were 200 mg%, 200 mg%, 200 mg% and 198 mg% ; 123 mg%, 123 mg%, 122 mg% and 121 mg% ; 3.72 mg%, 3.69 mg%, 3.67 mg% and 3.65 mg% respectively. The protein, fat, moisture and minerals (Na, K ,Ca ) contents were slightly decreased due to increasing the duration of refrigeration time of red amaranth, whereas the protein, fat, moisture and minerals (Na, K ,Ca ) contents of the 3 days or 7 days refrigerated red amaranth were not changed significantly. On the other hand, ash and fiber contents were slightly increased due to increasing the duration of refrigeration time of red amaranth but no significant changed of carbohydrate, protein, fat, moisture and minerals (Na, K ,Ca ) contents were observed, when red amaranth were refrigerated for 15 days. Therefore this study suggest that to getting the good quantity of  nutrient from red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.), it should better not to preserved more than 15 days. This study may also give the awareness among the people of Bangladesh for the preservation of red amaranth or other leafy vegetables by using refrigerators.

Phytochemical Analysis of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Leaves of Moringa oleifera">

Sonia Goswami and Rashmi Singhai

The present study deals with the phytochemical screening of leaves of Moringa oleifera (M.O). In Sanskrit the common name of Moringa oleifera is shobhanjana, in Hindi it is commonly known as suhujna or Sainjna and in English it is known as moringa, drumstick tree, ben oil tree or benzoil tree and horseradish tree1 1. Moringa oleifera Lam (syn. Moringa pterygosperma), the most widely cultivated species of a monogeneric family Moringaceae The screening was carried out with different solvents using soxhlet extraction procedure. Each extract was further concentrated to obtain the actual yield of extraction. A small portion of the dried hydroalcoholic ( ethanol 70% and water 30%) leaf extract of fresh leaves have been subjected to the phytochemical test for alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, saponins, flavonoids and steroids. The phytochemicals were identified qualitatively using standard chemicals and standard outcomes The result of this phytochemical analysis of hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Moringa oleifera plant indicates the presence of alkaloids, steroids and flavonoids in sufficient quantity.

Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Laurus nobilis L.leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity

Mostafa M.H. Khalil, Ibrahim I. Mahmoud and Mariam O.A Hamed

In this paper we report the Laurus nobilis L. (Laurel) leaf aqueous extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at room temperature and its antimicrobial activity against drugresistant microbial isolates is evaluated. The prepared AuNPs were characterized using Uv–visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The impact of extract concentration, extract pH, and contact time on the size and shape of synthesized AuNPs is studied. Only 45 min were required for the complete reduction and capping of Au3+ into gold nanoparticles (Au0) at room temperature. TEM analysis along with DLS measurements of the gold nanoparticles revealed a size ranging from 14 to 39 nm with average size of 21.9 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study confirmed crystalline nature of the synthesized particles. FTIR of the purified and lyophilized gold nanoparticles revealed the surface adsorption of biomolecules during synthesis of AuNPs confirming the role of Laurel extract in capping and stabilization of AuNPs.The antimicrobial potential of the synthesized AuNPs were compared with that of aqueous laurel leaf extract by standard well diffusion method. The AuNPs significantly inhibited bacterial growth against multidrug resistant Gram Positive bacteria (Bacillus subtillus ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923), Gram negative bacteria (E. Coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa ATCC 27858) and Fungi (Candida albicans ATCC 10231). The study revealed that the aqueous laurel leaf extract has no effect at the concentrations used for preparation of the AuNPs. ThusAuNPs showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity that may be agood alternative therapeutic approach in future. 

Phytochemical Analysis and Medicinal Evaluation of Ethanol Extract of Ficus exasperate Leaves

Jokotagba Oloruntobi Adenike and Onasanya Seun Sunday

Phytochemical and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Ficus exasperate leaves was carried out. The phytochemical analysis of the leaves indicated the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoid, alkaloids, steroids and glycosides.The GC-MS analysis of the Ficus exasperate ethanolic extract result showed the presence of bioactive compounds which revealed a broad spectrum of many medicinal properties and antioxidant activities. This study also helped to identify the formula and structure ofbiomolecules which can be used as drugs in the leaf extract. 

Preparation and Evaluation of Turmeric Herbal Formulations

Ramya Kuber B, Hema Latha D, Chetash CH and Lakshmi M

Herbal formulations are the preparations which are derived from natural sources that have medicinal value and used as herbal medicines and herbal cosmetics.Curcuma longa is a rhizome herbaceous perennial plant belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. The present study is to prepare and conduct stability studies of Curcuma longa herbal formulations like Ointments, Creams, Toothpaste and Face packs for dry skin, tanned skin and acne. Various Curcuma longa herbal formulations were prepared and conducted the stability studies by using different evaluation parameters like Foam formation, Spreadability, Fineness and PH for tooth paste, Skin irritation, Spreadability, Penetration and PH for Ointment, Creams and different face pack Creams. Toothpaste showed the absence of abrasive particles, good spreadability, foam formation, fineness and neutral pH.7, and it is stable for 3months. Ointment and creams showed good spreadable, penetrable property and suitable PH. 6 and skin irritation was absent. The PH 6 is suitable for topical preparation because skin PH is between 5 and 6. Both cream and ointment were stable for 2 months. Other creams were stable for 1 day only because in this formulation Beason powder is used, it's prone to attack microbes, hence only fresh formulations can be advisable. Curcuma longa herbal formulations are having lead molecule used as a medicine, cosmetic and it may have benefit to society.">