Research Paper in Herbal Chemistry

An Efficient Method for Extraction of Docosahexanoic Acid (DHA) from Fermentation Broth Obtained from Algae

Dr. Ashok Kumar, Dr. Kishor More, Dr. Leena Gupta, Mr. Prathmesh Deshpande

Herein we present an improved, simple, inexpensive, rapid and efficient method for the extraction of DHA from fermented broth derived from algae. Present method comprises of three stages: First is enrichment of DHA by centrifugation technique which has been found to be more effective and less time consuming as compared to known membrane filtration technique. Second is the extraction of enriched DHA which was done using different solvents and toluene was found to be the best among all the other tested solvents. Last stage is the purification of crude DHA obtained after extraction. Purification was carried out by two methods. First involves solvent slurry preparation followed by citric acid and bentonite treatment and the second includes saponification of DHA followed by non-urea complex fractionation (NUCF). Later one was found to be more potent as compared to earlier one. On applying the above treatment to 28.0 liter broth (titre value 3.9 mg/ml) we successfully achieved high quality DHA of assay 80-85% in good yield.

A Preliminary Study on the Hepatoprotective Activity of Musa Paradisica Roots in Albino Rats

Krishna Murthy, S. V. Kilaje, S. J. Joshi, G. S. Shinde, R. V. Karadi

The objective of the present study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Musa paradisica root extract on hepatotoxicity induced by Carbon tetrachloride. The hepatoprotective activity of Musa paradisica root extract was assessed on Carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity at dose of 300mg/kg body weight and Liv 52 was taken as standard.Serum GPT, GOT and ALP levels were significantly elevated after Carbontetra chloride intoxication in rats compared with control animals. These parameters were reversed to normal after administration of the extracts. Musa paradisica root extract proved to possess hepatoprotective activity.">

Antioxidant Activity in Aqueous Extracts of Ingredients of Mathumeha Chooranam Stored for Six Months at Room Temperature and at 4o C using 1, 1- Diphenyl-2- Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Assay

T. Kumutharanjan, S. Ramaiah and V. Arasaratnam

Numerous studies have indicated that the herbal medicines have antioxidant properties and provide protection against oxidative stress induced diseases and disorders. Hence this study was initiated to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the aqueous extracts of ‘Mathumehachooranam’ It contains Terminaliachebula, Phyllanthusembelica, MurryakeonigiiandGymnemasylvestrae. Two different Hot and cold extracts were obtained from this ingredients of skin of the seeds of Terminaliachebula, fruit of Phyllanthusembelica, Leaves of Murryakeonigii andGymnemasylvestrae. They were assess for their antioxidant activity by measuring the free radical scavenging of plant extracts evaluated by DPPH assay according to the method described by Blois (1958). Highest (lowest IC 50 values (reverse order of antioxidant activity) and Lowest antioxidant (Highest IC 50 value) were observed in skin of the seeds of the Terminaliachebula (8.98) (4.0) µg/ml andGymnemasylvestrae (2632.1), (2227.5) µg/ml on first day. Antioxidant activity was higher at 4o C than stored at Room temperature. Mathumehachooranam possess antioxidant activity. When compared with the cold extracts of mathumehachooranam and its ingredients with hot extracts, hot extracts contained higher antioxidant activity than cold extracts. Among the cold and hot aqueous extracts of the dried powder of the ingredients of the mathumehachooranam possess antioxidant activity. When compared with the cold extracts of ingredients of mathumehachooranam with hot extracts. Hot extracts contained higher antioxidant activity than cold extracts. Among the four ingredients, Terminalia chebula was finding to possess significantly higher antioxidant activity than others. Next to the Terminalia chebula,Phylanthus embelica had higher antioxidant activity


Effect of BaP Exposure on DNA Break Damage, CYP1A Expression, EROD and SOD Activities of Oreochromis Niloticus

Glenda Líz Castro-García and Facundo Joaquín Márquez-Rocha

The effect on DNA strand break, CYP1A expression, SOD and EROD activities have been studied in the fish Oreochromis niloticus exposed to Benzo[a] pyrene. DNA strand break damage was statistically different between controls and treatments, complete nuclei core damage (level 4) was produced only in the presence of Benzo[a]Pyrene. The superoxide dismutase activity was inhibited, while EROD activity and CYP1A expression were induced in liver of exposed organisms. These data might provide evidences that Oreochromis niloticus exposure to B[a]P produced DNA oxidative damage by at least two mechanisms, inhibition of enzymes involved in the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and by the CYP1A induced activity via the intermediate o-semiquinone anion radical formation respectively">

Contribution to Botanical, Phyto-ecological and Phytochemical Studies of Calicotome villosa (Poiret) Link subsp. intermedia (C. Presl): A Phylogenetic Approach from Moroccan Species

Abdelkarim GUAÂDAOUI, Ilyass El-ALAMI, Malika ABID, Noureddine BOUKHATEM, Mohammed LECHKAR3, Abdellah HAMAL1

Despite an abundance of the plant in very large populations and the belonging to a known class (Fabaceae) for its biological activities, in addition to its genetic stability (autogamy); phytochemical and biological studies on Calicotome villosa subsp. intermedia remains limited. The geographical endemism plays a role in limiting these scientific studies, but also the confusion of this species with other species of the same genus “Calicotome” makes these studies much more difficult, hence the need for botanical and phyto-ecological study of C. villosa subsp. intermedia in order to (a) facilitate its determination and then probable new localizations, and (b) searching its phytochemical composition in comparison with related species in a phylogenetic approach. For this, a study on the six separated parts of Calicotome villosa subsp. intermedia collected from a new area in eastern Morocco is performed for the first time, the roots and pods were never studied on this plant. The screening results of total alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids from all plant parts have been shown qualitatively by extraction of the three molecular families targeted in this study. Indeed, the phytochemical study revealed a significant existence of saponins in roots of the plant (~2.39%), and significant amounts of alkaloids distributed in all parts of the plant, with an encouraging yield in seeds (~1,69%) and pods (~1.26%). For flavonoids, yields around 1% were found in the leaves, seeds and flowers

Anti-Herpes Activities of the Pure and Nanoemulsion of Essential Oil from Leaves of Casearia Sylvestris Sw. (SALICACEAE)

Flaviane Gomes Pereira, Fábio Burack da Costa, Ronaldo Marquete, Barrie May, Deborah Quintanilha Falcão, Elisabeth Mansur6, Davyson de Lima Moreira and Maria Teresa Villela Romanos

Casearia genus (Salicaceae) is found in sub-tropical and tropical regions of the world, and comprises about 160-200 species. In Brazil, there are about 48 species, 12 of which are found in the State of Rio de Janeiro, including C. sylvestris. This study describes the chemical composition of the essential oil from fresh leaves of C. sylvestris, the preparation of a nanoemulsion, and the activity of both the essential oil and its nanoemulsion against the Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The chemical analysis of the essential oil revealed a very diversified (n = 21 compounds) volatile fraction composed mainly of non-oxygenated sesquiterpenes (72%). These sesquiterpenes included α-humulene (17.8%), α-copaene (8.5%), (E)-caryophyllene (7.6%), germacrene B (7.4%) and α-cubebene (7.2%). Oxygenated sesquiterpenes were also identified, but in lower concentrations (25.6%), and the major constituent was identified as spathulenol (11.8%). Monoterpenes were not detected. The developed nanoemulsion was a light, bluish color, was stable, and had a droplet size of 212.9 ± 4.0 nm. Both the essential oil and its nanoemulsion were effective in the experiments of pre-treatment of cells, exhibiting a 90% or higher virucidal inhibition. The 50% effective concentrations values (EC50) calculated from the dose-response curve and the selectivity indices (SI) obtained in the antiviral tests were 29.70 μg/ml and SI >8.41 for the essential oil and EC50 0.0016 µg/ml (0.016%) and SI 7.5 for the nanoemulsion. A stable nanoformulation was developed for delivering the essential oil components which resulting in increased activity against the virus.

A Search of Antioxidant Compounds from Common Plants of Western Nepal

Pramod Aryal, Govinda Tiwari, Pooja Rimal, Krishna Gandharba, Prakash Gyawali, Ram Prasad Bhusal,

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content (TPC) of ten common plants used by the ethnic population in the Butwal region, Western Nepal. The methanol and/or water extracts of selected plants all exhibited antioxidant activities, corroborating their medicinal use by local communities

Antidiabeticand Antidiarrhoeal Activities of Ethanolic Acacia Nilotica L. Stem Barks Extract

R. Akter and S. Mazumdar

To assure the antidiabetic and the antidiarrhoeal effects of ethanolic extracts of Acacia niloticaL. stem barks (EANB) in Wistar rats were carried out in the present studies. Acute toxicity study of EANB was implemented in Swiss albino mice to determine its doses for theantidiabetic and antidiarrhoeal study. Oral glucose tolerance model (OGTM) and alloxan induced diabetic model (AIDM) were performed to assess antidiabetic activity of EANBat doses of 1.5g/kg, 1g/kg and 500 mg/kg, and 1.5g/kg respectively. For antidiarrhoeal effects of EANB,castor oilinduced diarrhoeal (COID) model and gastrointestinal motility test with barium sulphate milk (BSM)modelwere also assessed at doses of 750 mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, and 250 mg/kg respectively. Administration of EANB resulted low blood glucose levels in OGTM at doses 1.5g/kg and 1g/kg significantly (P<0.05).Whilst, dose at 500 mg/kg showed no significant result of the mentioned antidiabetic model. In AIDM,Wistar rats showed worthy result at 1.5g/kg dose (P<0.01).In addition, after administration of EANB at doses 750mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 250mg/kginhibited significantly positive in COID modelat P<0.001, P<0.01and P<0.05 respectively.However, at the dose of 250 mg/kg showed 16% inhibition in BSM model.

An Overview of Vitamin, Mineral Content of Aloe Vera and Processing of Aloe Vera into Powder

Aanchal Johari and Asha Kawatra

Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) is among the 28 safer and healthy medicinal plants which are being used as herbal medicines. In the present study vitamin and mineral content of aloe vera has been reviewed. Studies suggest that Aloe vera is rich in all vitamins especially the antioxidant Vitamin A (β-carotene) and C but excluding Vitamin D. Vitamin B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin) B3 (niacin) choline and folic acid are also present along with a trace of Vitamin B12.Phosphorous, calcium and iron content of Aloe vera by scientists have been reported to be 174.30 mg/100g, 492.30 mg/100g and 8.63 mg/100g, respectively. In the present study different processing methods viz. freeze drying method, spray and tray drying techniques for development of aloe vera leaf powder have also been reviewed. Aloe vera has long been used as a traditional herbal medicine during various diseases like diseases connected to the digestive system, to cure liver and spleen enlargement, abdominal pain, constipation, worm infestation and other abdominal problem, used as purgatives. Aloevera has antiseptic, gastro protective, analgesic, antifungal, antiviral, antibiotic wound healing agent and antiulcer properties; helps soothe burns and screen out radiations. Aloe vera powder is an important ingredient in the preparation of a large number of Ayurvedic traditional herbal medicines.