Research Paper in Herbal Chemistry

Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Mircromelum Minutum

MA. Louisa G. Taguiling

In the present study, qualitative phytochemical screening of leaves, stem and root barks of Micromelum minutum was conducted using standard method of phytochemical analysis. Also, extracts from the three parts of the plant were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test. The obtained results of the phytochemical screening showed the existence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponins, phenolics, tannins, and proteins on the leaves and barks of the plant while the roots contain carbohydrates, phytosterols, phenolics, tannin, flavonoids and proteins. Antimicrobial susceptibility test demonstrated partially active to active antimicrobial properties of leaves, stem bark and roots. The result justified the traditional use of the plant in treating toothache

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Efficacy of Abutilon Indicum Root Extract Assisted Silver Nanoparticles

T. Shankar, P. Karthiga, K. Swarnalatha

The present study reveals the facile biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from the root extract of Abutilon indicum, a medicinal plant which acts as a reducing agent. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of silver nanoparticles was characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and observed at 421 nm. The nanoparticles were found as spherical uniform and monodispersed and the particle size ranges from 15-20 nm from the scanning electron microscopy. The presence of elemental silver in the synthesized nanoparticles was observed by using EDX (Energy dispersive X-ray spectrophotometer) and the XRD (X-ray diffraction) data predicts the crystalline nature of the nanoparticle. The interface of nanoparticles with the root extract of Abutilon indicum was carried out by FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy). In the end, the activity of crude extract and synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against the common human pathogens like E. coli, S. aureus, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa, K. planticola and B. subtilis. A choice of concentrations of the nanoparticle in colloidal form was used to analyze the antibacterial activity from 20 µL. The nanoparticle synthesized by using root extract of Abutilon indicum, exhibits strong bactericidal activity, which was identified by the clear zone of inhibition and it has huge application in the field of medicine.

Evaluation of Peripheral Analgesic Activity of Leaves and Bark of Dalbergia Sissoo (Roxb.)

Mamta Bhattacharya, Archana Singh and Chhaya Ramrakhyani

Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) is Indian rosewood which is a deciduous forest tree. It is natively found in Indian subcontinent. It is called as Shisham which is best known premier timber tree. It is also used as fuel wood with its multiple product uses and agro-forestry application. Several phytoconstituents have been isolated and identified from different parts of the plant belonging to the category of alkaloids, glycosides, flavanols, tannins, saponins, sterols and terpenoids. The ethanolic extracts of leaves and bark of plant under study was evaluated for peripheral analgesic activity using acetic acid-induced writhing test in Albino Wistar rats. The writhing movement were observed and counted for 20 min after acetic acid administration into Wistar rats. Results showed significant decreased writhing movements in rats, throughout the observation period of 5 hrs and moderate peripheral analgesic activity in ethanolic extract of leaves of dose 1000mg/kg and in standard drug Indomethacin this writhing movement were observed and counted for 20 min after acetic acid administration into Wistar rats.

Pharmacognostic Study and Development of Quality Control Parameters for Fruit of Zanthoxylumrhetsa (Roxb) DC (Rutaceae)

Alphonso Priya, Satish. A. Bhalerao and Saraf Aparna

Zanthoxylumrhetsa (Roxb) DC (Rutaceae) fruit is used in traditional systems.To lay down the various pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards which will help to ensure the purity, safety, and efficacy of Zanthoxylumrhetsa (Roxb) DC (Rutaceae).macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, and phytochemical methods were applied to determine the diagnostic features for the identification and standardization of intact and powdered drug of Zanthoxylumrhetsa (Roxb) DC (Rutaceae) fruit.The shape, size, colour, odour, surface characteristics were determined for the Zanthoxylumrhetsa (Roxb) DC (Rutaceae) fruit. Scanning electron microscopy images powder of revealed useful diagnostic features.The data generated from this study would be of help in the authentication of Zanthoxylumrhetsa (Roxb) DC (Rutaceae) fruit as an important constituent of various herbal drug formulations. The qualitative and quantitative microscopic features would prove useful for laying down pharmacopoeial standards. Morphology as well as various pharmacognostic aspects of Zanthoxylumrhetsa (Roxb)DC (Rutaceae) fruit were studied and have been described here along with phytochemical, physicochemical studies, which will help in authentication and quality control.

Antiproliferative Activity of Methanolic Root Extract of Withania somnifera against MCF-7, HCT-15, U373-MG and OVKAR-3 Cell Lines

R. A. Shah, S. Khan and M. Vakil

An anticancer activity of methanolic root extract of Withania somnifera collected from four different regions of India were screened in vitro by SRB method on four Human cell lines viz.U373-MG, MCF- 7, HCF-15, OVKAR-3. Plants growing under different agroclimatic condition often show qualitative and quantitative variations in their phytoconstituents. The methanolic roots crude extract were compared with two known steroidal lactones i.e. Withaferin-A and Withanolide-A which are known to be therapeutically active. For the screening of anticancer activity, LC50, TGI, GI50 were considered. The results obtained reveal that standard Withaferin-A had high potency towards the entire studied cell lines tested whereas Withanolide -A, did not show anticancer activity against any cell line. Among the studied samples viz. WsK, WsN, WsM and WsL, only WsK showed potency towards breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) at a concentration of 16.8 µg/ml.

Antidiabetic Herbs and their Marketed Formulations

Priya Patiyal, Nisha Thakur and Sumit Summy

Diabetes Mellitus is one of the fast growing metabolic disorders affecting people globally. The present paper reviews on natural herbal plants (with their botanical name, common name, constituent, mechanism of action and their pharmacological test results) and marketed polyherbal formulations. The effects of these plants may delay the development of diabetic complications and correct the metabolic abnormalities. In recent years; considerable attention has been directed towards identification of plants with antidiabetic ability that may be used for human consumption

In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Polyherbal Rejuvenator Formulation Assessed in Free Radical Scavenging Assays

M. Gupta, N. Karmakar, S. Sasmal, S. Chowdhury and S. Biswas

The present study evaluates the in vitro antioxidant free radical scavenging capacities of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of a herbal rejuvenator drug prepared by adding equal amounts of dried roots of Sida cordifolia and Glycyrrhiza glabra because these two medicinal plants have been used since ancient times in the Ayurvedic system of medicine and elaborated in its ancient texts such as Charak Samhita (Chikitsa Sthanam). Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of flavonoids, tannins, carbohydrates and saponins. The total phenolic content of the alcoholic extract and the aqueous extract was found as 26.50 and 28.60 Gallic acid equivalents/mg while the total flavonoid content was assessed as 85.91 and 80.31 Quercetin equivalents/mg respectively. IC50 (µg/ml) of alcoholic, aqueous extract and Ascorbic acid was found to be 57.027±5.200, 44.507±1.252 and 17.48±1.356 in Hydrogen Peroxide Radical Scavenging, 0.823±0.033, 0.745±0.075 and 0.722±0.090 in DPPH radical scavenging and 232±15.163, 179±53.894 and 6.627±0.061 during FRAP essay. Similarly, during ABTS radical scavenging, IC50 (µg/ml) was assessed as 332.960±2.177, 162.155±9.736 and 6.779±0.167 for alcoholic, aqueous extract and Trolox respectively. While both the extracts showed substantial and significant free radical scavenging activity during the study which is compared to that of the standard drug, the aqueous extract of the herbal rejuvenator research drug exhibits higher in vitro antioxidant activity than the alcoholic extract possibly due to higher concentrations of phenolic compound in it, validating and confirming therapeutic properties ascribed to it in Ayurvedic texts.

Effect of Cadmium Chloride on Histoarchiteceture of Kidney of Fresh Water Fish Heteropneustes Fossilis and Recovery of Damaged Tissue by Herbal Compound Ashwagandha

B. Nagar, R. S. Sisodia and L. Bhattacharya

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of cadmium chloride on ON HISTOARCHITECETURE OF KIDNEY OF FRESH WATER FISH HETEROPNUESTS FOSSILIShistoarchiteceture of kidney of fresh water fish Heteropneustes fossilis. The fish were exposed to o.5 ppm of cadmium chloride for 21 days. The most remarkable changes in kidney due to cadmium chloride were loosening of haemopoietic tissue; uriniferous tubules have lost their original appearance, narrowing of renal tubules and damaged glomeruli. Their size was significant at (P<0.05, 0.01 and 0.001) reduction after cadmium chloride. All these changes will be recovered by herbal compound, Ashwagandha. The damaged tissues were recovered in already treated group.

Application of Non-Aqueous Titration Method for Estimation of Arginine in Phytonutraceutical Tablet Formulation

R. Rane, R. Shelar, D. Hattangadi, S. Kundalwal, C. Chotalia and A. Suthar

L-Arginine is a semi essential amino acid. Even if it is normally synthesized in the body, supplementations are required in certain conditions. It is required for various functions in the body. Hence it is essential to evaluate its concentration in the formulation by suitable method.Two types of Tablet formulations viz. Female Aphrodisiac (FSF)-1 and Male Aphrodisiac (MSF)-1 were prepared, using 600mg L-Arginine hydrochloride each and other ingredients. Both the formulations were subjected to quality evaluation. Presence of all ingredients was confirmed by HPTLC, however, quantification of Arginine, was carried out by applying simple and easiest “Non aqueous titration method”. Quantification of L-Arginine hydrochloride and L-Arginine was carried out in API i.e. in authenticated raw materials, in granules as well as in corresponding tablet formulations viz. FSF-1 and MSF-1.L-Arginine hydrochloride was found to be more than 99% in both raw materials (API). In granules of FSF-1 and MSF-1 analytical findings were 59.747% and 56.378% respectively. In corresponding tablet formulations, observed values were more than 100% of theoretical expected value.Non aqueous titration method was found to be suitable for quantification of L-Arginine hydrochloride and can be used for controlling the quality of the tablet formulation.

Formulation and In-vitro Evaluation of Polyherbal Mucosal Gel Containing Calendula officinalis and Glycyrrhiza glabra for the treatment of Mouth Ulcer

Pritika Kama*, Nisha Thakur and Niladry Shekar Ghosh

The present research has been undertaken with the objective to formulate and evaluate the polyherbal mucosal gel containing plant extracts (Calendula officinalis and Glycyrrhiza glabra) for the treatment of mouth ulcers.  Calendula officinalis and Glycyrrhiza glabra are known to have anti-ulcer, anti-inflammation and anti-bacterial activities. Gels were prepared by using Carbopol 940P as gelling agent. Carbopol was used in different concentrations. All the prepared gel formulations were evaluated for various properties such as pH, spreadability, extrudability, viscosity, in-vitro release etc. The formulation F4 containing higher concentration (1.4%) of Carbopol 940P as base showed good adhesion to oral mucosa.FTIR studies showed that there was no drug-excipient interaction. In-vitro drug release studies were carried out in phosphate buffer (6.8 pH) using Franz diffusion cell. The results of in vitro drug release and its permeation studies showed that the highest values were from F4 Containing calendula Officinalis (91.3% of drug released after 3 hour) and F4 containing Glycyrrhiza Glabra (91.67% of drug released after 3 hour). Stability studies of F4 formulation were also carried out as per ICH guidelines for 3months at different temperature and humidity conditions.