Research Paper in Herbal Chemistry

Biological and histological study of Arabic gum on rats treated with gentamicine

Nivin S. Nail, Asmaa A. Salem, Shahenda, M. Elaby and Rasha A. Shalaby

The present study was undertaken to investigate the aqueous extract of Arabic gum (AEAG) for its protective effect on gentamicin (GM) induced toxicity in rats. Toxicity was induced in rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of GM (80 mg/kg) body weight for 8 consecutive days. Rats were divided into four groups and treated for 4 weeks as follows: control, i.p. GM, AEAG in drinking water (10%, w/v) and GM+ AEAG, as after. Both biochemical parameters and histopathology tissues of kidney, liver and testis were examined to assess the gentamicin-induced toxicity. The results revealed that administration of AEAG protected the rats from GM-induced toxicity as evidenced by significant improvement in the values of heamatological parameters: red blood cells count (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), as well as the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), gutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) which were reduced by GM treated rats. While administration of AEAG along with gentamicin were significantly ameliorated the other erythrocyte parameters: platelet counts (PLT) and white blood cells count (WBCs) as well as the activities of liver function parameters [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP)], lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxides (H2O2) compared to the elevation by GM treated rats. These findings suggest that AEAG in drinking water at a concentration of 10%, w/v, for four weeks protected the rats from GM-induced toxicity in both biochemical parameters and histological changes.

Study on Reproductive Biology of Saraca indica L. (Caesalpinacae)

Neelam Kulshrestha and K.P. Singh

Saraca indica a medium size tree commonly known as Sita Ashok. The plant starts shedding of leaves in the last week of February and leaf renewal in the end of March. The flower initiation in the month of March and flowering period extend to April. The flowers are yellow and orange colour and finally into vermillion. The calyx is petaloid and petals are absent. In vitro and in vivo pollination is also studied. The pollen grains are spherical in shape. The stigma is receptive at the time of maturity. Various pollinators like honey bee, butterfly, small bees and wasps were visited the flowers. The fruits were also observed. However, the fruit-set percentage in April very low due to fluctuations in the daily temperature plants grown at Agra.

Squalene and ß-sitosterol from Afraegle paniculata unsaponifiable


Souleymane Bamba, Janat Akhanovna Mamyrbekova-Bekro, David Virieux, Pascale Guiffrey, Jean-Luc Pirat, Yves-Alain Bekro

Squalene and ß-sitosterol have been isolated for the first time from Afraegle paniculata unsaponifiable fraction, a Rutaceae of Côte d’Ivoire. Their respective molecular structure has been determined by spectrometric methods, including GC/MS, IR, 1H- and 13C- NMR.


Flavanols LC/MS and 1H-RMN from Ivorian Cassia sieberiana

Lancine Traore, Yves-Alain Bekro, Pascale Guiffrey, Jean-Luc Pirat, David Virieux, Emmanuelle Meudec, Janat A. Mamyrbekova-Bekro

Cassia sieberiana is a plant used in Africa and particularly in Côte d'Ivoire for its therapeutic properties. Phytochemical screening of this plant’s root bark put in evidence the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, tannins, saponins, sterols and terpenes. The present study focused on the characterization and structural elucidation by LC/MS and 1H-NMR of afzelechin and epiafzelechin, two flavonoid epimers isolated by flash chromatography from the aglycone’s fraction gotten of ethyl acetate extract of the root bark from Cassia sieberiana rich in total flavonoid aglycones.

Phytochemical Screening and Physiologic Functions of Metals in Seed and Peel of Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon)

EDORI, Onisogen Simeon and MARCUS, Abiye Clement

: The seed and peel of Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), a very commonly consumed fruit were examined for metals and phytochemicals. The metals were examined with atomic absorption spectrophotometer while the phytochemicals were determined through standard methods of phytochemical analysis after extraction of the Citrullus lanatus with ethyl acetate and water. The results of metal analysis showed that iron (Fe) was highest in concentration in both seed (29.73 mg/Kg) and peel (32. 60 mg/Kg) of the Citrullus lanatus, followed by manganese (Mn) in the seed (11.67 mg/Kg) and peel (14. 14 mg/Kg); zinc (Zn) in seed was 7.89 mg/Kg and peel was 9.11 mg/Kg and magnesium (Mg) in seed was 1.47 mg/Kg and peel was 1.28 mg/Kg of the Citrullus lanatus. However, other metal ions detected (calcium (Ca), copper, (Cu), potassium (K), nickel (Ni) and Lead (Pb) were lower than 1.0 mg/Kg in the seed or peel of the Citrullus lanatus. Arsenic (Ar) and selenium (Se) were undetected in both seed and peel of the Citrullus lanatus. Phytochemical screening of the ethyl acetate extracts of seed and peel of the Citrullus lanatus revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides in both seed and peel of watermelon. Tannins was only present in the seed, while phenols, carboxylic acid, quinone and xanthoproteins were absent in the seed. All the components examined were present in the peel except tannins. Phytochemical examination of the aqueous extract of the seed and peel of the watermelon showed that only carboxylic acid was present in the seed, while in the peel, flavonoids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, carboxylic acid and xanthoproteins were present. The result of the analysis indicated that these supposed wastes (seed and peel) of the Citrullus lanatus contain vital chemical components that can serve useful purposes in health, food and feeds supplements.

Effect of curcuma aromatica on nicotine induced Hormonal changes in female albino rats

N.Poonkodi and V. Elango

Tobacco use has reached the proportion of a global epidemic .Studies show that there is an association between nicotine of cigarette smoke and serum levels of sex hormones. This investigation was done to determine the nicotine induced toxicity (subcutaneously injected at the dosage of4mg/kg b.wt. per day for 30 days) on different tissues of female albino rats and corresponding ameliorative observations of Curcuma aromatica (orally administered at dose of 100 mg per kg b.wt. per day during the treatment). Nicotine causes significant changes in the organ weight (ovary and uterus) and affects the production of female hormones more significantly. Curcuma aromatica effectively ameliorates the deleterious effect of nicotine.

Medium term in vitro conservation of two Argentinian oregano cultivars – preliminary results of the effect of mannitol and sorbitol as growth retardants

M. B. Marengo, P. Bima, M. S. Ojeda and L. E. Torres

The aim of this work was to develop an efficient protocol for medium term in vitro conservation of oregano. Two concentrations of mannitol and sorbitol (25 g.l-1 and 50 g.l-1) were tested to evaluate their effect as growth retardants over oregano plants belonging to Alpa Sumaj FCA – INTA and Aguanda FCA – INTA cultivars. Both cultivars are preserved in the in vitro collection of oregano germplasm of the Laboratorio de Biotecnologia Vegetal (Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias - Universidad Nacional de Córdoba). Every six weeks the length of major axis of plants (cm), fresh weight (g.plant-1) and dry weight (g.plant-1) were measured. At 24 weeks, plants were transferred to fresh MS control medium (active growing medium) to evaluate the plants response when mannitol and sorbitol were removed from the culture media. Regardless the cultivar, after 24 weeks of cultivation in slow growth conditions, best results were observed in plants growing in MS medium added with 25 g.l-1 of sorbitol; even though plants cultured on this medium were significantly smaller than those cultured on MS control medium, they showed a healthy appearance and when they were transferred to active growth medium its development was not significantly different from the control plants.