Research Paper in Herbal Chemistry

Study of Antimicrobial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants against Escherichia Coli, Klebsiella Sp., Staphylococcus Sp. and Pseudomonas Species.

Madhulika Singh and Priya Rathore,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/1/00111

In recent years, renewed interest has been shown in the use of medicinal plants and scientific studies are been designed to explain some of the curative phenomena associated with traditional herbal remedies. Most drugs utilized by people all over the world are of plant origin. The use of herbal remedies has increased significantly in the last one decade. This has led to the production of herbal products. The microbial of curing all manners of microbial diseases were assessed. The herbal remedies were discovered to eliminate the contamination done by the following microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. The distilled water, ethanol, and aqueous extract of three medicinal plants were evaluated for activity against medically important bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. The Invitro antimicrobial activity were performed by agar well diffusion method and disc diffusion method. The plates are incubated at 37°C in incubator. The zones of inhibition were observed after this and observe the susceptibility towards the herbal drugs. The ethanol extract of garlic inhibited the growth of both gram positive and gram negative test bacterial cultures. The maximum activity was noted against Staphylococcus, Escherichia coli and minimum antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas. A zone of 12mm was recorded Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus by ethanol.

Comparative Study of Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activities of Two Endangered Medicinal Plants of Western Himalayas

Surbhi Soni, Rabia Sharma, P. K. Chauhan and Pankaj Sharm,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/1/01219

The aim of present work was to investigate and compare the phytochemical and antioxidant activities of two endangered medicinal plant species (Picrorhiza kurroa and Rauwolfia serpentina) of Western Himalayas. Leaf samples of both the plant species were collected from wild (W) and field grown (FG) habitats. Phytochemical analysis of both plant extracts taken from wild and field grown habitats showed the presence of different phytochemicals such as total phenols, terpenoids, flavanoids and reducing sugars, whereas alkaloids, steroids and saponins were found to be absent in all samples. Both total phenolic and total flavanoid contents were found to be high in wild variety of P. and low in field grown variety of R. serpentine. IC50 values of DPPH assay and Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay were found to be high in chloroform leaf extract of P. kurroa (W) i.e. 56.8μg/ml and 56.8μg/ml respectively. FRAP assay of all extracts followed concentration dependent activities with highest values of leaf extract of P. kurroa (W). Results revealed that the chloroform leaf extract of P. kurroa possess good antioxidant potential than R. serpentine; wild varieties of both species showed good phytochemical as well as antioxidant properties than field grown varieties.   

Antimicrobial Properties of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) in Relation to Shelf Life Enhancement of Fruits & Vegetables

Pramod K. Raghav & Mitu Saini,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/1/02032.

Plants are excellent source of active components which act as a natural antimicrobial agent and used for treatment of various diseases in whole world from ancient time. As a result the main focus of researchers is on the plants, especially herbs and spices. Tulsi is most sacred plant of the India. It is cultivated for medicinal and religious purposes. Ocimum sanctum has many beneficial properties namely anti-oxidative, antimicrobial, antistress, antidiabetic, antiviral and many others that’s why this plant is also given the term “Queen of Herbs”. Tulsi is one of the most important aromatic herb, which is widely used in Pharmaceutical Industry. O. sanctum is mostly used in the form of extract and oil. The main secondary metabolites of Tulsi extract is Eugenol, Linalool, β-Caryophyllene, Carvacrol, Apigenin, Rosmarinic Acid, Urosolic Acid, these are derivatives of alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, steroids and quinone isolated from Ocimum sanctum and other medicinal plants. Tulsi leaves extract also inhibit the growth of pathogens which is responsible for spoilage of fresh produce. Tulsi extract shows inhibitory effects against pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella typhae, Shigella dysentriae, Bacillus pumilus, Aspergillus spp., Candida albican and Penicellium spp. Essential oil and extract of Tulsi leaves have antiviral properties that’s why it is used extensively in medical practices. It is an excellent antimicrobial agent so it is used in food products as an ingredient as well as medicine.

In Vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Two Ophiorrhiza Species

Baiju, E.C., Asha, A., Sneha, J. and Athira, T.

Ophiorrhiza (Rubiaceae) is a critically endangered genus of Western Ghats. An investigation was carried out to explore the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Ophiorrhiza pectinata Arn. andOphiorrhiza mungos L. To measure antioxidant activity, DPPH assay was performed and disc diffusion method was adopted for antibacterial activity. The IC50 values of DPPH assay recorded for O. pectinataand O. mungos were 78 µg ml-1 and 62 µg ml-1, respectively. The crude extract of O. mungos and O. pectinata showed significant antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Thus, the study revealed that aqueous extracts of both Ophiorrhiza species had the potential to scavenge free radicals and to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria.

Quantitative analysis of lactate dehydrogenase, albumin and uric acid levels in saliva and serum of Sudanese snuff dippers

Abdel Azim Alsanousi, Abdel Rouf A. Abbas, Fatima A. B. Abdalla, Abdelmonem M. Abdellah,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/1/03948.

The wide use of a Sudanese snuff, which locally called toombak, is thought to be the main cause of oral cancer. Using spectrophotometry methods, the study was evaluated the levels of each of enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, albumin and uric acid in both saliva and serum of toombak dippers. A group of 150 toombak dippers were compared with a group of 50 healthy control subjects and 50 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Result indicated that there was no significant difference found between levels of lactate dehydrogenase and uric acid in saliva and serum of the three groups. There was a significant increase of albumin in saliva and a significant decrease of albumin in serum oftoombak dippersand OSCCpatients comparing to control. It may conclude that level of albumin in both saliva and serum of toombak dippers could be used as a real diagnostic marker for early changes caused by toombak dipping.

Evaluation of antimicrobial potential of Mallotus phillipensis, Kalanchoe integra and Aegle marmelos on pathogenic bacteria

Mrs. Margi H. Patel, Dr. (Mrs.) Farida P. Minocheherhomji,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/1/04956

Herbal medicine refers to the use of any of the plant material like seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for medicinal purposes. In the present study, methanolic extract of the leaves of Mallotus phillipensis, Kalanchoe integra and Aegle marmelos were investigated for antimicrobial activity using agar well diffusion method. For antimicrobial activity, five bacterial and two fungal strains were selected. The phytochemical screening of the leaves extract of all three plants revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, tannis, flavonoids, phenolic flavonoids and proteins. All the selected bacterial and fungal strains were susceptible to methanolic leaves extracts of Mallotus phillipensis, Kalanchoe integra and Aegle marmelos at varying degree. It is clear from the results of the present studies that the plant extracts have potential as antimicrobial compounds against bacteria and fungi. However, there is a need of further research to isolate the active ingredients from plant part (leaves) for further pharmacological evaluation

In-vitro Screening of Acetylcholinesterase activity and Antioxidant activity of different crude extracts from Alpinia purpurata: A new source for management of Alzheimer’s disease

K.N.Vinay, V. Venkata Lakshmi, N. D. Satyanarayan, Sunil More, Vineetha,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/1/05766

The objective of the study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of different crude extracts from alpinia purpurata as a new source for management of Alzheimer’s disease by Ellman’s microplate colorimetric method and antioxidant activity of this plant was measured by spectrophotometric method tested with three different concentrations (5, 50 and 100 μg).According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 ; μg/ml) of different solvent extracts from highest to lowest was methanol extract (19.08±0.02),n-hexane extract (21.93 ± 0.02) and dichloromethane extract (22.02± 0.05). The results indicated that the methanol extracts exhibited significant antioxidant activity when compared with standard Butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA)at 5 and 100 μg concentrations, the dichloromethane extract found be very high at 100 μg concentration. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still believed as the important therapeutic approach against Alzheimer’s disease; hence result indicated and confirmed that the traditional use of this plant for management of Alzheimer’s disease, this alpinia purpurata methanol extract will be a better candidate for further investigations and identification of active components.

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Leaves of Ficus religiosa (Peepal Tree)

Seema Pal, Srishti Sharma, Surbhi, Deepshikha Kataria,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/1/06774

Background: The present study was done to investigate antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity of leaves of Ficus religiosa. The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Ficus religiosa was analyzed against E.coli using well diffusion method. Total phenols, condensed tannins and total flavonoid content of ethanolic extract of leaves of Ficus religiosa were analyzed. The total polyphenols in ethanolic extract of leaves of Ficus religiosa were 21.55 ± 0.912 mg GAE g-1, condensed tannin content was 166.66 mg CE g-1 and total flavonoid content was found to be 704.66 mg CE g-1. Antioxidant activity of the extract was estimated using DPPH radical scavenging assay and was found to be 46.21%. Well diffusion method had shown zone of inhibition against E.coli. The study concluded that Ficus religiosa is a potent antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. It can be incorporated into various products and can be used as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in foods and pharmaceuticals.