Research Paper in Herbal Chemistry

Micellar Phytochemical investigation on Croton bonplandianum

Khushbu Sharma, Divya K. Shekhawat, Seema Vyas, M.C. Mali and N. Bhojak,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/2/10104

The present investigation was carried out to analyze the effect of extraction solvent on chemical extraction of Croton bonplandianum. The presence of phytochemical compounds was screened by qualitative method. Three different micellar systems have been used for extraction of different materials at primary level from Croton bonplandianum.This research is first report of micellar extraction from this plant. It has been found that nonionic micellar system is more effective for extraction than other micellar and water system.

Study on Chemical Constituents of Xanthium Strumarium L. Growing In Quang Binh Province, Vietnam

Le Quoc Thang, Tran Thi Hang,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/2/10511.

From the aerial parts of Xanthium strumarium L. growing in Quang Binh, Vietnam, four compounds, pentatriacontan-1-ol (1), mixture of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol (2), and lupeol (3) were isolated. The structures of isolated compounds were characterized on the basis of IR, MS, NMR spectroscopic techniques. This is the first time, pentatriacontan-1-ol (1) and lupeol (3), were isolated from Xanthium strumarium L. growing in Vietnam

Manufacturing Paper and Paper Board

Dr. Hemlata Raikwar, Dr. Anita Chouwbay,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/2/11215

Over the five year through 2017, Revenue for the paper and paper board manufacturing industry has been growing 7.0 % annually to $ 158.8 billion. With increasing competition and more stringent regulation. Many inefficient and outmoded paper mills exited the industry. Meanwhile, rising automation levels coupled with more efficient internal process, have led to a decrease in the industries work. In developed country paper manufacturing industries are some of the largest in manufacturing sector.

Biologically Active Constituent of Neem: A Review

Faiz Ali Khan,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/2/11618.

Neem is evergreen tree it belongs to family Maliaceae. It is found in tropical and semi-tropical countries like India, Pakistan, Burma and Myanmar. It is fast growing tree. It is medicinally important plant. Every part of Neem tree is potentially important for human being. The object of this paper is to review the biologically important properties of Neem extract

Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical constituents of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza fruit collected from Indian Sundarbans, the designated World Heritage Site

Satarupa Roy, Madhumita Roy, Prosenjit Pramanick, Bulti Nayak and Abhijit Mitra,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/2/11925

In the present study we carried out an investigation on the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical constituents of the fruit of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, a true mangrove species collected from Indian Sundarbans located at the apex of Bay of Bengal in the maritime state of West Bengal. Antimicrobial activity of n-hexane extract of fruit parts and leaf varied as per the order leaf > pericarp > exocarp > endocarp and for water extract the order is endocarp > exocarp > pericarp > leaf.

Phytochemical Screening and GC-MS analysis of Tridax procumbens leaves

A.Zahir Hussain, K.Jeevanantham and A. Noortheen,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/2/12634.

Tridax procumbens a weed found throughout India. The plant is known as “vetukkayathalai”, in English activity, hypotensive effect, immuno modulating property, bronchial, dysentery, diarrhoea. The present investigation was carried out to determine the qualitative analysis of phytochemical screening and possible chemical components Tridax procumbens. The further phytochemical compounds are identified using GC-MS analysis popularly called ‘coat buttons’ and is dispensed for “Bhringraj” by some of the practitioner of Ayurveda. Tridax procumbens is a widely occurring medicinal herbs used by ethnomedicinal practitioner. It has known for its number of pharmacological activities like hepatoprotective activity, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antidiabetic

Evaluation for the Qualitative Status of Eight Marketed Teas of Finlay Brand Produced In Bangladesh

K. M. Mesbaul Alam, Tahmina Parvin Rumi, Irin Farjana and M. S. Uddin,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/2/13553

: Eight different marketed teas of Finlay brand available in the local markets of Bangladesh viz; Premium tea, Gold tea, BOP tea, Finlay’s tea, Dust (WP) tea, English breakfast tea bag, Gold double chamber tea bag and Finlay tea bag were experimented before expiry dates to evaluate their qualitative status viz; Caffeine, Total Polyphenol (TP), Total Catechin (TC), Theaflavin (TF), Thearubigin (TR), Theabrownin (TB), Highly polymerized substances (HPS), Total liquor color (TLC), Antioxidant activity (AA), Briskness index (BI), Color index (CI) and nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca, Na and Fe). All the studied qualitative parameters were found to be varied significantly among the teas of Finlay brand. The values of caffeine and antioxidant activity (AA) were found to be changed from 6.42% (English breakfast tea bag) to 3.5% (BOP tea) and 88.52% (Gold tea) to 86.28% (Finlay tea bag) respectively. Likewise, the estimated maximum values of TF, TB, TC, TLC, and TP content were detected to be 1.15%, 13.75%, 5.93%, 4.21 and 38.3% respectively in English breakfast tea bag but maximum value of HPS was estimated to be 5.28% in Gold tea. On the contrary, minimum TF, TC, TLC, HPS and TP were found to be 0.71%, 4.24%, 3.4, 3.96% and 26.81% in Dust (WP) tea respectively whereas minimum value of TB was found to be 5.72% in Gold tea. In case of TR, the value ranged from 18.42% (BOP tea) to 9.32% (Finlay tea). On the other hand, the highest CI was determined to be 6.36 in Finlay’s tea whilst maximum BI was detected to be 24.13 in BOP and both the CI and BI was found to be minimum (4.55 and 11.91) in Dust (WP) tea. Moreover, the highest average value of N, P, K, Na and Fe contents were found to be 5.21%, 0.33%, 2.15%, 0.19% and 0.075% in English Breakfast Tea Bag respectively while the lowest average value of N and P contents were found to be 4.07% and 0.19%` in BOP and the lowest average value of K and Fe contents were found to be 1.47% and 0.038%` in Finlay Tea Bag and the lowest average value of Na contents was detected to be 0.08% in Finlay Tea. Similarly, concerning the Ca content the value ranged from 1.52% (Gold Tea) to 0.76% in (Dust-WP) tea. In concerning the qualitative status so far determined, the Present study concludes that English breakfast tea bag was found to be superior among the other teas of Finlay brand and all the studied brands may, therefore be ranked as: English breakfast tea bag > BOP tea > Gold double chamber tea bag > Premium tea > Gold tea > Finlay tea bag > Finlay’s tea > Dust (WP) tea

Prospect of Potential of Algae as Biodecolorizing Agent & Biosorbent in Waste Water Treatment: A Review

Krishna Y. Pandya, Rinku V. Patel, Rakesh T. Jasrai, Nayana Brahmbhatt,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/2/15465.

This review paper aims to deliver the concept of utilization of fresh water algae & marine plants i.e. seaweeds which are useful in production of agar, carrageenan and alginates helpful in food, pharma and agro industries however the application of marine seaweeds towards waste water treatment in terms of heavy metal removal and as decolorizing agent derives good potential. The review of literature summarized in this article represents the potential of fresh water algae & seaweeds for the removal of color from dyes waste water and heavy metals indicates the future application in terms of development of eco-friendly treatment plants which will lead towards the green evolution. This paper also evaluated the resolution for the accumulated or treated fresh water algae/seaweed biomass comes out as waste material after treatment which lowers the secondary waste generation by using it as biocompost preparations as by product & biogas as energy production.

Bioactive Polyphenols and Coumarins from Leaf Derived Callus and in vitro Regenerated Plants of Taraxacum officinale Weber

Neha Sahu, Awantika Singh, Brijesh Kumar, K.R. Arya,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/2/16679.

Taraxacum officinale is a well-known Indian traditional plant used to treat several kinds of ailments. Evolving industrial importance of herbal products in recent past, created a high demand of naturally occurring phytochemicals and their biosynthesis using plant tissue culture technology. Polyphenol and coumarin class of compounds are well known phytochemicals for several pharmaceutical applications including chemoprevention. In this paper we report a fast and renewable method for in vitro biosynthesis of quinic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid and umbelliferone from leaf derived in vitro cultures of Taraxacum officinale. MS media supplemented with 0.25 mg/L 2, 4-D with 0.05 mg/L KIN and 0.25 mg/L 2, 4-D with 0.05 mg/L 2iP prove to be the best hormonal combination for optimal growth and proliferation of callus and 2.5 mg/L NAA with 0.5 mg/L BAP for direct shoot organogenesis from leaf explant of T. officinale. Quantitative determination through UHPLC-MS/MS analysis attributes the novelty for identification and enhance accumulation of quinic acid by 21.24 and 18.47, protocatechuic acid 0.98 and 1.77, chlorogenic acid .49 and 2.12 and umbelliferone by 4.69 and 2.54 folds in callus and in vitro regenerated plantlets respectively as compared to wild. Remarkably, the quinic acid was found to increase by 38.57 folds in acclimatized plants as compared to wild. 

In vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive activity of Erinocarpusnimmonii methanol leaf extract

Anitha Puranik, Anantacharya R and Parimala R.DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/2/18087

Anti-inflammatory and antihypertensive potency of Erinocarpusnimmonii Grath a rare ndangered and threatened species (RET) was investigated. Leaf extract was prepared by using methanol as solvent; extraction was carried out by cold method. The anti-inflammatory analysis was carried out with the help of hyaluronidase inhibition assay and antihypertensive activity was by using colorimetric, high-throughput assay, Indomethacin and Captopril is used as reference standards in assays respectively. The extract exhibited anti-inflammatory and antihypertensive potentialities in a concentration dependent manner. The methanol crude extract exhibited inhibition of 43.42 % of hyaluronidase enzyme and inhibition of 11.46 % of acetyl choline esterase enzyme at 100 μg. The crude extracts needs further detailed study towards mechanism of action, drug discovery and drug design ">

Synthesis of Acridine Derivatives Using Ionic Liquid as Promotere ">

V. G.Kalalawe, D. R.Munde, R. P.Kagne, S.N.Niwadange, R. D.Gutte,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/2/18893

A facile and convenient protocol for the synthesis of high yielding acridine derivatives has been developed by one-pot three component reaction of dimedone, aromatic aldehyde and ammonium acetate using ionic liquid.">

Antibacterial activity of Withania somnifera leaf extracts against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria

Dr. Mayuri Thanwar, Dr. Dhananjay Dwivedi, Dr.Anil Kumar Gharia,

Withania somnifera is an important medicinal plant used in ayurvedic system of medicine since ancient times. The plant have potential to treat arthritis and rheumatism diseases so attention has been drawn to study antibacterial activity of the plant to challenge on antibacterial resistant pathogens. Four solvent extracts from leaves of withania somnifera tested against four test human pathogens viz., Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli..">

Nutritional Value of Ocimum Sanctum">

Sudeshna Biswas, Sufia Zaman and Abhijit Mitra,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/2/20003.

The leaves of Ocimum sanctum were analysed for its proximate and mineral composition. Fresh leaves of tulsi were collected from Sonamukhi region (23°18'27.27"N and 87°24'56.86"E) of Bankura district in West Bengal from different patches. The proximate and mineral composition of the leaves of O. sanctum was analyzed using standard methods of food analysis. The results show high carbohydrate content in the leaves with considerable protein content and low percentage of fat. Mineral composition indicated that the leaves of the species are good sources of K, Ca and Mg. High K content in the leaves suggest the plant to be highly beneficial for patients having blood pressure and hypertension.">

Effect of Grape Seeds Extract on Attenuation of Aflatoxins Toxicity in Rats

Gihan M. Hammoud, Yasser M. Abd El-Shafea, Asmaa A. Salem, and Nivin S. Nail,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/2/20423

Aflatoxins (AFs) are groups of structurally related potent mycotoxins fungal metabolites that contaminate food and feed. AFs cause economical losses and adversely affect animals and human health. Moreover AFs consider as a serious hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic agents. Grape seeds extract (GSE) is nutritionally rich natural herbal substance have substantial content of polyphenols. The present study aimed to evaluate biological role of GSE against AFs toxicity in rats. Aflatoxicosis was induced by treatment of rats with 1 and 2mg AFs/ kg body weight (b.w)/once/week for 3 and 6 weeks and characterized by significantdose and time-dependant increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and plasma lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde, MDA) and significant dose and time-dependant reduction of serum albumin, total protein (TP) and plasma reduced glutathione (GSH). Parallel to changes in biochemical parameters, AFs- intoxicated rats showed dose dependant pathological changes in liver, kidney, testes and brain. The oral administration of GSE (150 mg/Kg b.w/daily) along with AFs was significantly attenuate toxic effects of AFs and enhance of antioxidant and metabolic systems of rats. GSE restore most of liver functions and kidney functions parameters of low AFs treated rats to normal and succeed to preserve architecture structure of tested organs. Therefore GSE could be considering as effective natural agent for controlling AFs toxicity especially at low dose.">

Antimicrobial potential of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg clonally propagated via organogenesis

Burcu ÇETİN, Fatih KALYONCU, Tülin Ezgi ÖZEN,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/2/22429

In this study, the antimicrobial effects of plantlets micropropagated by organogenesis method from leaf explants of T. officinale were investigated. T. officinale seeds were germinated in 30 ml Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. The leaves excised from four-weeks-old germinating seedling was used as explants. The leaf explants was cut into 2 cm2 segments and transferred on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L-1 benzil amino purine (BAP) and 2 mg L-1 indole butric acid (IBA) for organogenesis studies. Obtained shoots were subcultured twice every 4 weeks. The shoots were harvested and dried at 24±2°C room temperature. For antimicrobial studies, T. officinale cultivated by tissue culture was tested for its antibacterial activities by using agar well diffusion method. Ethanol and chloroform extracts from this plant were assayed against nine bacteria species (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus cereus ATCC 7064, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Salmonella typhimurium CCM 5445, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 6896, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Enterobacter cloacae ATCC 13047, and Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341). Seed germination of T. officinale was observed in 10 days. Adventitious shoot regeneration was obtained at the end of the third week on leaf explants at MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L-1 BAP and 2 mg L-1 IBA. After 8 weeks the shoots were harvested and dried for antimicrobial studies. As a result, ethanol extracts of T. officinale showed 21 mm and 23 mm inhibition zones against Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris, respectively. T. officinale was found weakly effective on gram negative bacteria.

Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Methanol Extract of Microtrichia Perotitii DC (Asteraceae) against Selected Micro-Organisms

Abdullahi, M. N .and Mustapha, A. O.,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/2/23038

The resistance of micro-organisms against synthetic drugs has drawn the attention of the world to look for alternatives from plants (herbs). Microtrichia perotitii (Asteraceae) is an herb that can be exploited most especially since not much studies have been reported on it despites its uses for treating pain related diseases. In this study the phytochemical contents and anti-microbial properties of the herb were investigated. The herb was collected from Okene in Kogi State, Nigeria and was authenticated, prepared and extracted with methanol following standard methods. The preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out according standard protocols while antimicrobial screening was performed according to agar diffusion method as modified on hospital isolates of the species of   streptococcus, staphylococcus, Escherichia coli, shigella and candida. The phytochemical screening of the methanol extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides while phlobatannins and anthraquinones were not detected. Tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids are compounds with anti-microbial activities. Hexane, ethylacetate and methanol soluble fractions showed highest susceptibility against the species of streptococcus, Escherichia coli and only ethylacetate and methanol suppressed the growth of candida species. The methanol extract of Microtrichia perotitii possesses antimicrobial activity which could be described as antibacterial and antifungal owing to the type of phytocompounds present. Thus, Microtrichia perotitii represents a promising source of antibiotics as well enormous therapeutic potentials. This research is the first time it would be reported for Microtrichia perotitii.

Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Moderating Effect of Catharanthus roseus (Sadabahar) Leaves in Type II Diabetic Mellitus Subjects

K. Sharma, Akansha, S. Choudhary, E.S. Chauhan,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/2/23947.

Diabetes mellitus is one of the well-known significant disorders of the endocrine system. It is characterized by an abnormal increase in the glucose load. Catharanthus roseus is an important Ayurvedic medication in traditional medicine. It is potentially used in countries like India, South Africa, China and Malaysia for the healing of diabetes mellitus. Due to the great antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of Catharanthus roseus, we hypothesized that the effect of leaves powder shows a significant decrease in the blood glucose and lipid levels. The first group treated with leaves powder of Catharanthus roseus 75mg/100g incorporated in baked khakre. The biochemical evaluations of blood sample of subjects were done. The blood samples were taken using glucometer. The proposed study was framed to look at the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic efficacy of leaves powder of Catharanthus roseus. The doses were administered at a rate of 75mg/100g incorporated in baked khakre and detrained the glucose transport system in 8 weeks. We conclude that there is a significant decrease in blood glucose and lipid parameters. The findings are very encouraging and greatly advocate its candidature for the design of a novel herbal drug to cure deadly diabetes