Research Paper in Herbal Chemistry

Bioaccumulation Trend Analysis of Insulin Supporting Elements in Anti-diabetic Medicinal Plants and Hierarchal Presentation Based on Decision Tree.

T.S Magili and I.B Bwatanglang,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/4/40118.

In this study, Elemental Hierarchal Decision Tree’ was developed to aid in the selection of anti-diabetic medicinal plants species on the basis of elemental content preponderance. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to investigate the bioaccumulation trends of 22 elements in 10 medicinal plants commonly used in Adamawa state, Nigeria for the treatment and management of diabetes mellitus (DM). From the results of the study the essential nutrients such as K, Na, Fe and Co are most effectively translocated by Leptadenia hastata with translocated factor (TF) = 1.51, 1.27, 1.90 and 2.83 respectively. Hymenocardia acida was found to be most effective for majority of the radioactive elements, Sm, Yb, Th, Lu and U with TF = 24.65, 33.46, 82.33 and 25.00 respectively. On the basis of tissue accumulation, the leave of Leptadenia hastata ranked highest in cumulative concentration of elements and Anogeissus leiocarpus ranked highest in cumulative concentration of elements in the stem bark sample. The root bark sample of Jathropha gossypiifolia was ranked highest in cumulative concentration of elements. On the whole, Ca, K and Mg (macro elements) and Cl, Fe, Zn and Mn (micro elements) are the most representatives of essential minerals found in the order of cumulative concentrations in all medicinal plants tissues investigated.

Assessment of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Eucalyptus globules and Syzygium cumini leaves

D. Kayal vizhi, K. Irulandi, V. Siva, P. Mehalingam and N. Nirmalkumar,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/4/41925.

The present investigation assesses the antioxidant effect and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the leaf extracts of Eucalyptus globules and Syzygium cumini leaves. The methanolic leaf extracts Eucalyptus globules and Syzygium  cumini were evaluated for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging. The results of the present study showed that the methanolic leaf extract of Eucalyptus globules which contains highest amount of phenolic compounds exhibited the greatest antioxidant activity. The occurrence of better antioxidant property mainly contribute to the reducing the radical molecule presence in the phenolic compounds

Study of in vitro alterations in human blood by aqueous extract of Bauhinia forficata leaves commercialized in Argentine

Hermano Mascaro Grosso, Maria Teresa Santos, Carlota Saldanha, Ana Silva- Herdade Bibiana Riquelme,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/4/42633.

Among the numerous plants of medicinal interest is Bauhinia forficata Link, which belongs to the Fabaceae family. Its leaves, branches and roots are widely used in Brazil and Argentina in the form of herbal infusions and other phytotherapeutic preparations for the treatment of various diseases, such as diabetes. The glycemic reduction ability of this medicinal plant was demonstrated in several in vitro studies, using both rats and human models. Although the composition of this plant was identified, little is known about the pharmacological activity of most of the isolated substances. In this work, we present an evaluation of the rheological alterations in human blood by in vitro treatment with aqueous extracts (infusion and maceration) of B. forficata. Our results show that, in low concentrations, no hemolysis is observed, erythrocyte deformability and AChE enzyme activity decreased for the extract that received high temperature in their preparation. The analysis of the hemorheologic effects of the two different plant extracts can be considered a fundamental tool to assess their hemocompatibility and the possibility of using them to reverse some of the alterations observed in vascular processes, particularly in diabetes.

Phytochemical screening and HPTLC fingerprint analysis of Sargassum Oligocystum and Cystoseria Trinodis and Evaluation Their Effect on Trichomonas Vaginalis under Laboratory Conditions

Moradali Fouladvand, Soleyman Khorami, Rahim Tahmasebi, Mohsen Khataminejad, DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/4/43445

Our findings show that this method is an efficient, simple and environment- friendly procedure to use the extract of Sargassum oligocystum and Cystoseira trinodis algae against Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro. This work aims phytochemical, HPTLC fingerprint and anti-trichomonas vaginalis screening of Sargassum oligocystum and Cystoseira trinodis with consider green chemistry method. The equoaus, methanol, dichloromethane and n-hexane extracts of the leaves was developed in the mobile phase of Toluene: acetone: formic acid   (4.5:4.5:1) using standard procedures and scanned under UV at 254 nm, 366 nm and visible light at 540 nm. The in vitro antiparasite activity was performed on extracts of Sargassum oligocystum and Cystoseira trinodis in water, methanol, dichloromethane and n-hexane against Trichomonas vaginalis.The equeous and organic extracts of the plants at a concentrations of 0.005%, 0.007% and 0.01% were taken and their activities were measured. The results revealed that all the extracts had approximately same degree of antiparasite activity but equeous extract has more advantages than organic extracts due to its low side-effect, environment-friendly, easy and low cost method. HPTLC fingerprint analysis of equeous extract of Sargassum oligocystum and Cystoseira trinodis can be used as a diagnostic tool for the correct identification of the secondry products and it is useful as a phytochemical marker.

Anti-inflammatory activity of Momordica cochinchinensis and Momordica balsamina fruit extracts

Mr. Mohan R Agrawal, Dr. Anilkumar N Aher, Dr. Subodh C Pal and Dr. Deelip V Derle,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/4/44655.

In the present study fruit extracts of Momordica cochinchinensis and Momordica balsamina (Cucurbitaceae) were investigated for anti-inflammatory activity by Carrageenan induced hind paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma animal model. The extracts were prepared successively using powdered material with Petroleum ether, Ethanol and Water, concentrated under vacuum and were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity at three dose level (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg). In Carrageenan-induced paw edema method, oral administration of Petroleum ether extracts of both the plants at the dose of 100 (p < 0.05), 200 (p < 0.01) and 400 mg/kg (p < 0.001) significantly inhibited the edema formation. The highest percentage inhibition 47.36 % and 63.06 % at sixth hour was shown by petroleum ether extract of both plants at the dose of 400 mg/kg respectively. In cotton pellet granuloma method, Pet ether extract at the dose of 100 (p<0.05), 200 and 400 mg/kg (p<0.01) of both plant material have shown significant anti-inflammatory activity and was comparable to standard drug Diclofenac (10 mg/kg) in reducing the granuloma formation. It is concluded that Pet ether extracts of both plant material have significant anti-inflammatory effect, may be attributed to phytosterols and triterpenoids present in these extracts.

Separation of anthocyanins from the petals and the callus of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) by chromatographic techniques and study of their antioxidants

Konkon NG, Kpan WB, Ouattara D, Kouadio OKS, Abeda ZH, Kouakou TH,DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/4/45666

This study aims is to evaluate and compare the antioxidant activity of anthocyanins of callus extracts and petals of Hibiscus sabdariffa. The anthocyanins of both extracts (callus and petals) were identified by CPC and confirmed by CLHP. Then, their antioxidant activities were evaluated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. The results of the qualitative phytochemical study of the extract revealed the presence of six anthocyanins in the calli of the Roselle while the petal extract contains only four. Delphinidin 3-O-sambubioside (2.8 μg/g DM), cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside (4.1 μg/g DM) and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside (6.2 μg/g DM) are the major anthocyanins of the extracts tested. In addition, these compounds exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities. The callus extract has a high antioxidant power (5.2 μg/g DM) than the crude extract of corolla (6.70 μg/g DM). It can be concluded that the anthocyanins of Hibiscus sabdariffa calli would be better adapted to reduce cardiovascular disease.

Nano-silver: Biosynthesis, characterisations and antimicrobial activities

DOI: 10.24214/IJGHC/HC/7/4 /46775.

Naveen Chandra Joshi and Ajay Singh

The medicinal applications of silver and its salts have illustrated from old human civilizations. Currently, the development of nanotechnology has recognized the uses of silver nanoparticles in agriculture and antimicrobial activity included antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidants. The silver nanoparticles are very smaller than microorganisms and easily can diffuse in their cells. Silver nanoparticles have been commonly used in house hold utensils, food storage and biomedical applications. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is an environmentally friendly and efficient method taking part the plant extract and silver salts. The characterizations of silver nanoparticles are very important part in the evaluation of their functional aspects. Characterization is usually done by the methods including X-ray diffractometry, UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, Transmission electron microscopy, Dynamic light scattering and Atomic force microscopy.